PS-545/9371 UNITS: 1-9
Department of Pakistan Studies
Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad

M.Sc / BS Pakistan Studies
Study Guide
Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities ALLAMA IOBAL OPEN UNIVERSITY, ISLAMABAD

Course Development Team
Chairman Javed Iqbal Syed  Professor of Sociology Dean, Faculty of Social Science and Humanities, A.I.O.U. Islamabad.
Writer and Reviewers
Dr. Saeed Shafqat Professor of Pakistan Studies, Chief Instructor, Civil Services Academy. Lahore
Shandana Zahid Lecturer, Department of - Pakistan Studies, A.I.O.U., Islamabad.
Course Coordinator
Mrs Samina Aman Editor Shahida Shah
Course Development Coordinator Shandana Zahid

Table of Contents
Part One: Organization of the Course
 1 Structure of the Course 7
2. How to use Reading Material 8
3. Study Chart 9
4. Time Table 10
5. How to Attend a Tutorial 11
6. Assessment 12
7. Course Description 13
Part Two: Blocks 1-9 17
L Block One: Concepts-I 18
 1.1 Introduction 18
1.2 What is a Political Party? 19
1.3 Required Readings 19
1.4 Self Learning Questions with Points to Note 20
2. Block Two Concepts-II 22
2.1 Introduction 23
2.2 What is a Pressure Group? 25
2.3 Required Readings 25
2.4 Self Learning Questions with Points to Note 25
2.5 Public Opinion and Propaganda 26
2.6 Required Readings 26
2.7 Self Learning Questions with points to Note 26
3. Block Three Political Parties & Pressure Groups. 27
 Interaction & Interrelationship 27
3 Introduction 28
3.2 Interaction and interrelationship between 30
 Political Parties and Pressure Groups
3.3 Required Readings 30
3.4 Self Learning Questions with Points to Note 30
3.5 What is party strength? 30
3.6 Required Readings 30
3.7 Self Learning Queiiions with Points to Note 31
3.8 How does the making and breaking of coalition or alliance occur with-in or among political parties? 32
3.9 Required Readings 32
 3.10 Self Learning Questions with Points to Note 32
 3.11 Impact of Political Parties on Political Development 32
 3.12 Required Readings 32
 3.13 Self Learning Questions with Points to Note 32

4. Block Four & Five Party systems and political stability 33
4.1 Introduction 34
4.2 Traditional Political System and Political Change 36
4.3 Required Readings 36
4.4 Self Learning Questions with Points to Note 36
4.5 Single Party System 37
4.6 Required Readings 37
4.7 Self Learning Questions with Points to Note 37
4.8 Two-Party Systems 38
4.9 Required Readings 38
 4.10 Self Learning's Questions with Points to Note 38
 4.11 Multi-Partism 39
 4.12 Required Readings 39
 4.13 Self Learning Questions with Points to Note 39
 4.14 Political Stability 39
 4.15 Required Readings 39
 4.16. Self Learning Questions with Points to Note. 39
5. Black Six Party system in Pakistan 41
5.1 Introduction 42
5.2 1947-58 44
5.3 Required 'Readings 44
5.4 Self learning Questions with Points to Note 44
5.5 1958-69 44
5.6 Required Readings 44
5.7 Self Learning Questions with Points to Note 45
5.8 1969-71 46
5.9 Required Readings 46
 5.10 Self Learning Questions with Points to Note • 46
5.11 1971-77 48
 5.12 Required Readings 48
 5.13 Self Learning Questions with Points to Note. 48
5.14 1977-88 49
 5.15 Required Readings 49
 5.16 Self Learning Questions with Points to Note 49
5.17 1988-to date 50
 5.18 Required Readings 50
 5.19 Self Learning Questions with'Points to Note 50
6. Block Seven & Eight Role of Political parties 51
6.1 Introduction 52
6.2 Pakistan Muslim League 53
6.3 Required Reading 53
6.4 Self Learning Questions with Points to Not 53
6.5 Pakistan People's Party 54

6.6 Required Readings 54
6.7 Self Learning Questions with Points to Note 54
6.8 National Awami Party 55
5.9 Required Readings 55
 6.10 Self Learning Questions with Points to Note 55
 6.11 Jarniat-I-Ulam-i-Islam 56
 6.12 Required Readings 56
 6.13 Self Learning Questions with Points to Note 56
 6.14 Republican Party 56
 6.15 Required Readings 56
 6.16 Self Learning Questions with Points to Note 57
 6.17 Jamat-i-Islamai 57
 6.18 Required Readings 57
 6.19 Self Learning Question with Points to Note 57
 6.20 Jamiat-al-Ulama-i-Pakistan 58
 6.21 Required Readings 58
 6.22 Self Learning Questions with Points to Note 58
 6.23 Mohajir Qaumi Movement 58
 6.24 Required Readings 58
 6.25 Self Learning Questions 58
Block Nine Pressure groups in Pakistan 60
7.1 Introduction 61
7.2 Role of Major Pressure/Interest Groups in Pakistani Politics 61
7.3 Required Readings 61
7.4 Self Learning Questions with Points to Note 61
Prescribed Reading List 63

• The course has been structured to make it as easy as possible for you to do the required work. Like a half credit course this course consists of nine blocks but of unequal length. Ideally one block is a student work of 12-16 hours. Since the course work of one block will include studying the prescribed reading material and carrying out the various self-learning questions and as the length of the blocks is unequal, we have calculated the length of time you are required to o spend on each block which is given in the time table. We expect you to finish the work within the allocated time. (See section 4)
• We have organized this course to enable you to acquire the skill of self- learning. Your will find a course description at the end of this part which will provide you an overall view of the course. For each block an introduction is given to help you develop an objective analysis of the major and sub-themes discussed in the prescribed reading material. Major and sub- themes are listed along with the prescribed reading material.
• Each prescribed reading is compulsory for successful completion of course.
• We expect you to do your study in the suggested manner given in "how to use reading material" (for details please see section 2)
• For this course, 'Forth nightly Tutorials' are arranged in University's Regional Study Centers. They provide facilities to meet with one another for mutual help and individual discussion with the 'Course Guide'. These tutorials are not formal 'lectures' given in any formal University; rather these are meant for group and individual discussion with the Course Guide to facilitate you to undertake part of your learning together. So before going to attend a tutorial prepare you self to discuss course material with your colleagues and course guide. (For detail see section 5 How to Attend, the Tutorial).

• As this is a 'distance education' course we have organized the required course work in the following manner to help you in evolving a self-learning process in absence of formal class room teaching.
i) A detailed course description.
ii) Introduction to each Block.
iii) The major theme of the block is divided into sub-themes, which are listed along with Required Readings. Unlike other courses, Required Readings are not classified as compulsory and suggested, each prescribed reading is compulsory for successful completion of the course.
iv) After listing 'Required Readings' we have given you few self learning questions for each topic or theme. These questions are not only meant to facilitate you in understanding the required readings but also to provide you an opportunity to assess yourself how far have you learnt.
v) To help you in answering the questions, points to note arc given. These points will not only lead you to a better understanding but will also suggest a direction in which we expect you to think and analyse. You can of source think or many more points.
vi) Although you choose your own way of studying the required reading material, you are advised to follow the steps which are shown in the study chart that follows (Section 3)

STEP 1 For clear identification of your reading materials thoroughly read the Course Description and introductions to the Blocks.
STEP 2 Read carefully the way the reading material is to be used (2)
STEP 3 Complete the first quick reading of your required study material,
STEP 4 Carefully make the 2nd reading and note down some of the points you were not able to fully understand.
STEP 5 Carry out the self-learning questions with the help of your study material.
STEP 6 Revise your notes. There is every likelihood that many of those points which you did not previously understand become clearer to you now during the process of carrying our self-learning questions.
STEP 7 Preparation for the tutorial meeting i.e. note down the point for discussion with othermembers of your group and with your Course Guide.
STEP 8 Make a third and final reading of your study material. At this stage, students are advised to also keep in view the home work assignments which they supposed to complete in relation to each block.

 Block-1 Block-2 Block-3 Block-4 & 5 Block-6 Block 7& 8 Block-9
Reading 30 Minutes 30 Minutes 30 Minutes 45 Minutes 30 Minutes 45 Minutes 30 Minutes
Studying 5-6 Hours 4-6 Hours 6-8 Hours 14-15 Hours 5-7 Flours 14-15 Hours 6-8 Hours
Self Learning 4-6 Hours 4-6 Hours 4-6 Hours 7-9 Hours 4-6 Hours 10-12 Hours 5-6 Hours
Activities &
Preparation 1-2 Hours 1-2 Hours 1-2 Hours 2-4 Hours 1-2 Hours 3-4 Hours 2-3 Hours
for Tutorials
Total Hours of Study: aximum= ours
Minimum = 108 Hours

Before attending a tutorial you are required to prepare yourself in the following manner to get maximum benefit.
The first tutorial is Introductory Tutorial for which you are required to do the following work.
STET I Go through first part of the Study Guide which includes:
 i) Organization of the course
 ii) Structure of the Programme
 iii) How to use Reading material
iv) Assessment
STEP 2 Read carefully Course Description 2.3 times to have a better understanding of the course. It will give you an overview of the whole course. Make notes of those point which you cannot fully understand or wish to discuss with your Course Guide.
In tutorial 2-9, you will complete course work consisting of 9 Study Blocks.
The way we have arranged these tutorials, will give you an opportunity to discuss one block in one tutorial.
Please see schedule of the semester.
STEP 3 Read Introduction to 'the block', and make notes of the themes, around which, the block is constructed.
STEP 4 Study "Required Readings", in the manner, these are prescribed in how to Use Reading Material, and make notes of the points you are not able to fully understand and wish to discuss with your Course Guide.
For each course the registered student will be assessed as following:
• Assignments (continuous assessment) see details as given below. Final Examination three hours written examination will take place at the end of the semester).

The conditions to qualify each component arc given below:
i) A minimum of 40% for MSc and 50% for 13S in each assignment (Total number of assignments for this course is 2)
ii) A minimum of 40% for MSc and 50% for BS in the final written examination.
iii) An aggregate 40% for MSc and 50% for BS of both the components i.e. assignments and final examination.
iv) To take final examination the student has to pass the Assignment component The grade will be determined as following:
40% - 54%
55% - 69%
70% - Above A
• Assignments are those written exercises which you are required to complete at your own home or place of work after having studied different parts of the prescribed reading material; within the scheduled period of study. (Please see the schedule). For this course you will receive two assignments- which we expect you to complete within the study period.
• This compulsory course work and its successful completion will make you eligible to take final examination at the end of the semester.
• To complete your course work successfully, you are provided with tutorial support, so that you can discuss you 'academic problems in tutorial meetings.
(See section 5)
• After completing the assignment you will send it to the Tutor/Course Guide, whose name is already notified to you for assessment Aril necessary guidance. Your Tutor/Course Guide will return it after marking and providing you academic guidance and supervision.
• To qualify each assignment, you have to obtain a minimum marks.

There is a considerable confusion about the nature and functioning of political parties - particularly in Pakistan and generally in the third world countries. This course will aim to clarify confusion with regard to political parties. The effort will be made to provide a theoretical and conceptual basis of political parties as well as pressure groups.
Once we have provided the theoretical and conceptual foundations of what constitute a political party and a pressure group, then we would like to see, to what degree these concepts help to facilitate our understanding about political parties and pressure groups in Pakistan.
To achieve these twin objectives we will focus on the following topics.
i) What is a political party?
ii) What is a pressure group? '
iii) What is public opinion and propaganda?
iv) Interaction and interrelationship between political parties and pressure groups.
v) How the making breaking of coalition occurs within or among political parties.
vi) An understating of various party systems, such as, one party system, two party systems; Multi party system and No party system.
vii) Party system in Pakistan: Its strengths and weaknesses.
viii) Political parties and their role in Pakistani politics. Case studies of major political parties in Pakistan'.
ix) Major pressure groups and their role in Pakistani politics.

This course will be divided into two parts. The first part will focus on providing theoretical and conceptual foundations of a political party and a pressure group. Once we have laid down the foundations of theoretical perspective we will concentrate on explaining the evolution, growth, development and the decay of political parties in Pakistan.

Theoretical literature on political parties is enormous. Political parties have been defined by the scholars in various ways. For example, according to leading American political Scientist, a political party can he defined as a, "relatively stable, organized, label providing group". However, while analyzing political party factors like continuity of its leadership, ideology, organization, sources of funding, social class of members must be taken into account. For the purposes of this course and with reference to the problems and prospects of the political parties in the third world countries, we will focus on the contributions made by o scholars, such as Huntignton, Apter, Duverger and La Palombara.
During the various phases of nationalist movements in the third world countries, political parties have played a significant role in.the creation of new nation-states. However, in most of these developing countries once independence was achieved political parties have invariably failed to sustain the momentum that they created during the phase of nationalist movements. It can be appreciated that political parties performed a

modernizing role. These parties were agents of mobilization and change and were able to integrate diverse interest groups during the phase of national movements, while explaining the evolution and development of political parties: Apter has identified two types of political parties: Parties of Solidarity and Parties of Representation.
Parties of Solidarity
According to Apter parties of Solidarity emerged invariably in the form of a movement. Such parties promote group affinity and fellow-feeling. In these types of parties ideology plays an important binding role for the diverse groups. Such parties aim at mobilizing the masses and are in general, mass-based. In the parties of solidarity the organizational component is relatively weak. As these parties are amorphous in size, organization remains their problem. Furthermore, Apter suggests that in the third world countries most of the nationalist movements were led by such parties of Solidarity. Since the organizational component was weak in parties of solidarity, therefore after independence these parties invariably began to disintegrate. Thus if political parties are weak in developing countries, according to Apter one need to understand the circumstances of their origin and the process of evolution and development that these underwent. This of course led him to conclude that parties of solidarity were born in m obilization systems.
Parties of Representation
According to Apter, Parties of ,Representation are born in an environment of competition and pluralism. Such parties in their origin are elite based. However, as the competition increased, they began to incorporate and represent the interests of the various groups. Parties of representation promote consensus building, compromise and bargain. Such parties minimize the significance of ideology. In
such parties interests are given preference over ideology. However, parties of representation are well financed by those whose interests they represent. In such parties "party machine" plays an important role thereby making these political parties relatively better organized and stable. Given these characteristics, Apter suggests that such political parties are associated with reconciliation system.
According to Huntington, a political party is an important modernizer. He argues
that the evolution and development of a political party can be seen in four phases.
In the first phase the political party emerges as a faction, which basically promotes
organizational activity. In the second phase as polarization increases in the society
as a consequence of modernization, this associational activity consolidates the
development of a political party. In the third phase expansion of political process
increases the number of participants. This in turn, facilitates the development of a
political party. However, it is not until the final and fourth phase which Huntington
describes "institutionalization", that a political party really acquires according to
Huntington the institutional strength of a political party to be measured by taking
into consideration the following factors.
• The ability to survive its founder or charismatic leader.
• Adaptive capacity of the party.
• Its organizational structure i.e. how stable and strong arc the linkages between the party and the socio-economic organizations that support it e.g labour unions, interest groups, etc.
• Loyalty to the party given by its members.
Huntington however suggests that in traditional societies the relatively conservative elements obstruct the modernizing role of a political party. He argues that since VI the developing societies life is disorganized in general, a political party performs the role of an organizer. According to him, whosoever is able to organize, has the potential to organize society and acquire power. He asserts that the need is to institutionalize the process of party development. Party is considered as performing a pivotal role in promoting political stability in a given society. According to Huntington, disorganization is way of life in developing societies, therefore, as a policy choice he has recommended the creation of Leninist type of political party which has a stable organization, consistent ideology, and mass membership. Such a party would promote political order in these countries.

In addition to political parties we will focus on pressure groups. A pressure group can he based on class, ethnicity, religion, or shared interest. Its basic function is to promote the interests of those who form the group. Pressure groups form an important component of political parties. More than one type of pressure groups may exist and operate in a political party. Inter-relationship between pressure groups and political parties is complex one. However, an important point of distinction between a pressure group and a political party is that a pressure group operates behind the scenes, within a political party, to advance the interests of that group. It is interesting to note that in American political parties pressure groups play pivotal role. They have legitimate position and influence the party's ideology
and programmes. On the contrary, in developing countries pressure groups invariably compete with political parties. Pressure groups operate outside the domain of a Political party. However, in recent years they have begun to clamour for a place in the political parties.

The second part of .the course will focus on the evolution, development and of political parties in Pakistan. Most of the literature, i.e. appearing on political parties in Pakistan is either historical or descriptive in nature. In most of the writings it is argued that political parties have failed in Pakistan because either the leadership was faction ridden or the political parties were unable to organize themselves and discipline their members. Consequently, political parties failed to develop a competitive party system. The failure of political parties facilitated praetorianism i.e. intervention of military into politics. It will be interesting to explore that if the political parties failed to develop a stable political system what were the causes of this? To explore and analyze this problem we will focus on the evolution and development of political parties in Pakistan. It will be suggested that in order to have a better comprehension of how political parties came into being and how they
function in Pakistani polity? We should focus on the following factors:

i) Type and continuity in leadership
ii) Organization
iii) Ideology
iv) Sources of funding
v) Membership i.e. is it class based, region based or a mass membership.

Keeping these factors in view we will adopt the framework provided by Huntington and
Apter, and see to what degree it explains the development of political parties in Pakistan.
Furthermore the effort will be made to identify some of the major pressure and the kind
of role these play with reference to party development or the lack of it in Pakistan.
On the basis of above mentioned factors the effort will be made to analyse the evolution
and development of political parties and the role that these have played in the politics of
Pakistan. We will focus on the following political parties.
0 Pakistan Muslim League (i.e. all the factions that have emerged or decayed
since its creation to contemporary times)
ii) Pakistan People's Party
iii) National Awami Party (alongwith their various factions that have emerged or
decayed in this party from its inception to present times)
iv) Jamat-i-Islami of Pakistan
v) Jamiat-ulma-e-Islam
vi) Jamiat-Ulma-e-Pakistan (along with their various factions from their
 inception till contemporary times) •
vii) Mohajir Qaumi Movement / Mutahida Qaumi Movement (MQM)
To analyze the role and contribution of these parties in Pakistani politics, we will look at
their manifestoes, speeches and statements made by the leaders of the parties and spacific
position that these parties have taken on important social, political and economic issues.


This is the first block of this course and the theme in the block revolves around the pivotal question:
What is a political party?
There is a common misperception that any group of individnals that acquires a label can
he considered a political party. This is misleading. We would like to see how various
scholars have defined a political party.
A leading American political scientist has defined a political party as a "relatively stable,
organized, label providing group". However for political party factors like ideology,
social foundations, structure, organization, participation, strategy, continuity of
leadership, sources of funding must be taken into account. According to Maurice
Duverger "in the first half of the nineteenth century when people referred to parties they
were thinking primarily of ideologies rather than the men who subscribed them". With
Lenin & Marx the emphasis was placed on the underlying social foundations i.e. "parties
were viewed as the expression of social classes in a nation's political life."
Duverger has identified three types of parties: the elitist or traditional parties that include
the European and the American type and which are not concerned with recruiting large
membership but are more concerned with quality than with the quantity. Then there are
the mass parties that came into existence more than half a century ago by the socialist
movements and this technique of organizing mass parties was later on adopted by
communist and fascist parties and also by parties in the developing countries. In between
these elitist and mass parties are the indirect parties e.g. the British Labour Party in its
original organization. Its main committees were formed by union representatives, mutual
aid societies, cooperatives and intellectual groups that agreed to take common action an
political issues.
David Apter has identified two types of political parties of Solidarity and parties of
Representation. The former, according to him, are born in the mobilization system. They
invariably emerge in the form of a mass movement and are thus mass based. They
promote group affinity but due to their size are weakly organized. Ideology plays an
important role in such parties. After has suggested that in the third world' countries most
of the independence movements were led by such parties of solidarity. These began to
disintegrate after they had achieved their goal i.e. independence. Parties or
Representation according to Apter minimize the role of ideology and are elite based
interest groups play an important role and they promote consensus building compromise
and bargain. These parties are financed by those whose interests they represent. The
parties arc organized and stable, therefore, Apter has suggested, they are born in
reconciliation system.
• Durverger. Party politics and pressure groups, 1972
• ltalies

Huntington discusses the evolution and development of a political party in four phases.
According to him a political party is an important modernizer. In the first phase the
political party emerges as a faction and it promotes organizational activity. In the second
phase as a result of polarization which is due to modernization, this organizational
activity helps consolidate the development of a political party. The third phase is that of
expansion - increase in the number of participants and the final phase is stability which
Huntington calls "institutionalization'. Which is stability in terms of membership and
continuity of leadership.
Joseph La Palombara and Myron Weiner argue, that political party emerges when the
".:..activities of a political system reach a certain degree of complexity or whenever the
motion of political power comes to include the idea that mass public must participate or
be controlled". Thus they suggest that just as bureaucracy emerged when public
administration could not be controlled by the princes, the political party emerged when
recruitment of political leadership and making of public policies could not be handled by
a clique of men unconcerned with the sentiments of the public.
Thus political party can be viewed as dependent variable -- outgrowth of a process of
development or an independent variable - as an institutional force affecting the political
develop at itself e.g. role of parties in communist countries can be taken as an example of
independent variable.
Broadly speaking a political party may be defined as consisting of individuals and
associations who share similar interests and ideology which give them a sense of
identification. These individuals and associations while developing an organization work
voluntarily to pursue the above defined common goals.
1.2 What is a political party?
1.3 Itelquired readings
Reading 1 Party politics and Pressure groups
(Maurice Duverger)
PP 3-18
Reading 2 Political Parties
(Maurice Duverger)
PP 1-60
Reading 3 "The origin and development of political parties."
(Joseph La Palombara and Myron Weiner) in Political Parties and
Political development edited by Joseph La Palombara and Myron
PP 3-42
* La Palombara and Weiner, Political parties and political development. 1966

Reading 4 Political Order in Changing Societies
(S.P, Huntington)
PP 412-20
Reading 5 Politics of Modernization
(David E. Apter)
PP 179-216
1.4 Self learning Questions
What is meant by the term 'basic element'? What are the basic elements that can be
related to most of the existing Political parties according to Duverger? Discuss.
Points to note
— Basic elements' are the component units of party organization, such as
branches or local organizations that are dispersed throughout the country.
- These 'basic elements' are linked by coordinating institutions, like trade
unions or cooperaties that are not political by nature.
These elements are the caucus, the branch, the cell and the militia.
Caucus is a committee or a limited closed group that yieds great power and
forms the normal organization of parties under a property system of universal
suffrage that is still in its beginning.
Universal suffrage and techniques directly adapted to masses (e.g. the
branch) have brought decline of caucus. A branch is much less decentralized
than a caucus.
- A cell is an even smaller group. It is different from the branch on the basis of
group which is mostly occupational rather than geographical and on an even
smaller number of members than of a branch.
Militia is a kind of a private army whose members are subjected to same discipline
as soldiers. Parties with militia as their basis have a more definite breach between
electoral and parliamentary action. These members are neither mobilized nor
maintained by the organization and are of two categories: active and reserve e.g.
National Socialist Storm Troops of Hilter. However, no political party has ever
been exclusively formed on the basis of militia.
What are the Common Functions performed by a political party according to Joseph La
Palombara and Myron Weiner? What are the conditions that give rise to a political party?

Points to note
— Organization of public opinion and communication of demands to the central
power or the government, which ever the case may be.
- To articulate the meaning of broader community to its followers and the
selection of political leadership.
- Political parties emerge when there is a degree of complexity in the activities
of a political system or when the idea emerges that public must participate or
be controlled.
Differentiate between the elitist or traditional parties and the mass parties.
Points to note
- Elitist parties are not mass based and are more concerned with quality than
with the quantity.
Elitist parties are of two different types -- the European and the American
- Mass parties were organized by socialist movements more than half a century
ago. This technique was later adopted by Communist and Fascist parties and
much later by parties in the developing countries. Mass parties are broadly
based but because of their amorphous size their organization is not that
Is the emergence of political parties related to modernization process? If so, is their
creation a continuous process? Elaborate.
Points to note
— Political parties emerge when a political crisis of systematic magnitude
occurs at such a time when sufficient modernization has taken place and
conditions for party development are present.
Process of creation of political parties is continuous.
Origin of parties can be surveyed by theories concerning origin of parties that
i) Institutional theories
ii) Historical situation theories
iii) Development theories


2.1 Introduction
In this block we will focus our attention on pressure groups, public opinion and
propaganda. If one were to ask a question 'what is a pressure group' a simple answer
would be a group that may be based on class, ethnicity, religion or shared interest.
However the basic functions of a pressure group would be to promote the interests of
those who form the group.
Political parties strive to acquire power and to exercise it by electing local officials,
mayors, senators, head of the state etc., while pressure groups do not strive directly either
to acquire power or to exercise it. They influence power, i.e. they exert 'pressure' while
remaining behind formal structures of power. Pressure groups form an important
component of a political party. More than one pressure groups may operate and exist in a
political party. Pressure group may not necessarily be political in nature on the contrary
they are usually non political organizations whose primary activity is anything but
political. According to Maurice Duverger "any group, association, organization, even
those whose normal concerns are far removed from politics, can act as a pressure group
in certain areas and under certain circumstances."'
Duverger further proceeds to distinguish between the genuine and pseudo pressure
groups. While defining pressure groups two problems seem to arise. Could organization
with fewer activities in the area of political pressure be considered pressure groups. Are
governmental groups pressure groups? A pressure group is "exclusive", Duverger argues,
if its activities are solely in the political domain with bringing pressure to bear upon
public power e.g. the French Parliamentary Association for the Defence of Educational
freedom. Whereas a group would be "partial" if political pressure is one of the facets of
its activities and whose normal concerns may be far removed from politics e.g. a Labour
However, this distinction is not very clear in application because certain "exclusive
groups" could be technical agencies acting on behalf of other "partial" groups.
Then there are private and public groups. Al first only the former were taken into account
as pressure groups, however there is a growing tendency to include governmental bodies
and public agencies as 'public' groups. Even public groups are of two kinds -- one, the
governmental bodies that act to defend the interest of their agencies which they tend to
identify with public interest. While the second is made up of government officials who
tend to monopolize the top positions of influence. In this case also, the distinction
between the two is not clear. On the contrary, it tends to blur. There is yet another
important pressure group and it is the 'foreign' group. As is clear from its name these
groups do not belong to the countries in which they influence or exert pressure e.g.
intelligence agencies of the super powers and ex-colonial powers at times have been
found influential in creating such groups to influence the politics in the third world
• Duverger, op, cit

2.2 What is Pressure group?
2.3 Required readings
Reading 6 Party Politics and Pressure groups (Maurice Duverger) PP 216-18
Reading 7 The politics of Modernization (David E. Apter) —PP 101- 17, 121-58
Reading; 8 Comparative Politics (Gabriel A. Almond and G. Bingham Powell Jr.)
PP 169-77
2.4 Self Learning Questions
Are pressure groups always political? If not how do they exert political pressure?
Points to note
Definition of a pressure group.
Definition of a pressure group with respect to a non-political organization.
Difference between an Exclusive and Partial group.
What arc pseudo pressure groups? How do they exert political pressure? Discuss.
Points to note
Definition of pseudo pressure groups.
Types of pseudo pressure groups-- technical pressure groups and information
— Election campaigns, lobbies, newspaper and information media, private
propaganda bureaus are a few modes of exerting political pressures by the
pseudo pressure groups.
What is meant by public pressure groups? Distinguish between pressure from civil
organization and pressure from military.
Points to note
Definition of public pressure groups.
Role of civil organization-government agencies and civil service cadres.
Role of military as a pressure group--through intervention force and political

2.5 Public opinion and propaganda
2.6 Required readings
Reading 9 Politics (CA. Leeds) PP-155-65
2.7 Self Learning Questions
Public Opinion can be described as 'opinions held by groups of individuals on a particular
issue. Discuss the formation of public opinion. Explain how can it he measured.
Points to note
- Personal experiences, mass media, pressure groups, political parties and role
of government help in the formation or public opinion.
Old methods of measuring public opinion included polls through ballots
printed in newspapers.
Modern methods include public opinion polls through quota sampling and
random sampling.
Define propaganda. Briefly explain tile various methods and strategies which can be
employed for a successful campaign.
Points to note
Definition of public opinion.
- Techniques include
- timing of the campaign,
- choice of medium of communication, presentation of informatibn,
Selection of specific devices.


3.1 Introduction
In the previous blocks we have familiarized you with the concepts of a political party, a
pressure group, public opinion and propaganda. How ever our aim is not to discuss these
concepts separately, rather, our purpose is to establish and understand the
interrelationship between these concepts.
In this block we would try to analyze:-
- The interaction and interrelationship between political parties and pressure groups.
- Processes of party development.
Relationship between party development and political stability or the lack of it.
- What is the impact of political parties on political development?
Making and breaking of alliances among political parties.
We can identify three possible relationships between political parties and pressure
• Some political parties may be subordinate to pressure groups;
• Some pressure groups may be subordinate to political parties; and
• There could be cooperation on equal basis between a political parry and a pressure
By focusing these relationships we can analyze the nature of interaction between pressure
groups and political parties. Some criteria is required to measure the strength of a party.
According to Duverger there are three different yardsticks, the members, the voters and
the parliamentary seats. Three types of parties can be distinguished on the basis of
strength --
i) parties with a majority bent,
ii) major parties and
iii) minor parties.
The first term is used for those parties which command a majority in the parliament or
likely to command such a status. Major parties are those that have no hope of ever
obtaining a majority except in exceptional circumstances which do not correspond with
the nature of the system. Even if they are alone in office they exercise power with the
support and agreement of other parties. Normally they govern inside a coalition
government -- their strength o allowing them to play an important role inside the alliance
like having key posts and ministries. Even in opposition they are influential and cannot
be ignored.
Minor parties, on the other hand are merely makeweights whether on office or in
opposition, unless the gap between the majority and minority is insignificant. In such a
case they are in a position of holding a balance, their importance thus increases. In the
given reading Duverger discusses the theory of minor parties' in detail.

The principal types, Duverger argues, in the development of party strength are
alternation, stable distribution, domination and leftism. Alternation exists mainly in
dualist countries and has been defined as 'pendulum movement' each party moving from
opposition to office and from office to opposition': Britain is the classic example.
Stable distribution is in direct contrast with alternation, it corresponds to greatest
immobility "...The absence of any serious variation among the parties over a long period
of time"... In every period some doctrine has provided the basic intellectual framework,
the general organization of thought with the result that even its adversaries have been
able to criticize it or destroy it only by adopting its methods of reasoning. Christianity in
the Middle Ages and Liberalism in the nineteenth century serve as example. When Marx
constructed his theory he made use of arguments taken from Liberalism. He turned its
own logic against it: he was the last of the Liberals today Marxism tends itself to assume
the position of dominant doctrine: it can only be contested within the bounds of its own
dialectic. Similar phenomena of domination arc sometimes encountered in the evolution
of parties"*". Leftism is the birth of new parties on the 'left' of the old parties which
causes the latter to slide to the 'Right' or may bring disappearance or fusion amongst
them. There are certain other patterns of leftism, "... the weakening of all right-wing
parties to the advantage of left-wing parties without either disappearance or new creation
(e.g. France, 1924 - 39), the preservation of an overall balance between two blocks with
internal evolution inside one of them, ... the replacement of an old left party by a new
more energetic and intransigent one ..., the rise of the party furthest left at the expense of
all others"...**** so on and so forth.
The idea of strength is inseparable from that of alliance. Duverger argues, that alliance
between parties varies in form and degree. Some are unorganized temporary coalitions
which may take place in order to benefit the parties concerned in elections, or in order to
overthrow the government or to support one. Other are more strongly organized and
therefore lasting. So they are sometimes, as Duverger calls them, like super-parties. In the
given reading factors in alliances such as the number of parties, national traditions,
governmental interference, historical circumstances, influence of electoral regimes are
discussed. Types of alliances and relations between the allies are also dealt with. The
impact of parties on political development has been discussed at length by Joseph
Lapalombara and Myron Weiner. They have talked in detail about some selected
problems in the development of a party namely "...national integration political
participation, legitimacy and the management of ctinflict"4. and parties as instruments of
political socialization.
Duverger, Political Parties 1967
• ibid
• ibid
*—* ibid
* Joseph La Palomber and Myron weiner (eds) Political Parties and Political development, 1972 p-399

3.2 Interaction and interrelationship between political parties and pressure

3.3 Required readings
Reading 10 Party Politics and Pressure Groups (Maurice Duverger) P 117-21
3.4 Sell Learning Questions
Political parties strive to acquire power while pressure groups attempt to influence those
who acquire power. If so, what sort of relationship is possible between political parties
and pressure groups? Discuss.
Points to note
Pressure groups normally seek to influence men who wield power rather than
replacing their own men in power officially.
A Pressure group can be subordinate to a political party
A Political party can be subordinate to a pressure group.

Cooperation on equal basis.
3.5 What is party strength?
3.6 Required readings
Reading 11 Political Parties (Maurice Duverger) PP 281-324
3.7 Self Learning Questions
What is a minor party? Discuss the role of 'personality parties' and 'permanent minority
Points to note
— The concept of minor party.
— Types of minor parties.
Personality parties are parliamentary groups and have no social substructure.
They may be composed of-the retinue of influential persons for reasons of
prestige or favor. Other types are more egaliarian.

Then there are independent parties not linked with any major party and the
satellites that are strongly attached to a major party. They are riot generally
based on any precise doctrine and correspond to caucus parties with weak
organization, high degree of decentralization and complete lack of discipline
(except in retinue parties and in some satellites).
Permanent minority parties do not exist solely on parliamentary level. They
may dispose of an organization, either national or local, in the country.' Some
are based upon caucus or branch, others on cell or even militia but they are
mass parties by structure, having a social or a political substructure,
Personality parties tend to be for the government while minority parties are
usually against it.
Discuss the criteria or principles through which a party's strength may be measured.
Points to note
— Broadly speaking there are four principle types, namely;
stable distribution
domination and
Alternation means movement of each party from opposition to office and
vice versa. This pendulum movement is due to two fundamental factors. First
of all the exercise of power compels a party to rare& its programme so the
promises made to the electors are not fulfilled completely. This leads to the
transferring of votes by a certain proportion to the opposing party. Secondly
the activities of the government also give rise to opposition and
disagreements within the majority party. Alternation of power mainly occurs
in two party systems.
Stable distribution is the absence of serious variation among parties over a
long period of time. It corresponds to immobility and is in direct contrast
with alternation. Slightness of variation between elections and rareness of
long term trends are the two main elements of stable distribution.
Domination is the intellectual frame work or general organization of thought
during any period that can only be criticized or destroyed by using its
methods of reasoning while leftism is the birth of new parties on the left of
the old parties, causing the latter to disappear or fuse together or slide to the

3.8 How does the making and breaking of coalition or alliance occur
within or among political partite?
3.9 Required Reading
Reading 12 Political Parties (Maurice Duverger) PP 324-51
3.10 Self learning Questions
Critically analyse the factors that play a determining role in the formation of alliances.
Points to note
- How and why are alliance formed
- The number of parties
— National traditions
— Governmental influences
— Historical circumstances
- Influences of electoral regimes
3.11 Impact of political parties on political development
3.12 Required readings
Reading 13 Political Parties and Political Development (Joseph La Palombara and
Myron Weiner, eds.) PP 399-435
Reading 14 Politics of Modernization (David E. Apter) PP 218-22
3.13 Self Learning Questions
Critically examine the role of political participation in the development of a political
Points to note
— the meaning of political participation
— Different patterns of response to the demand for political participation by
party government: repression, mobilization, limited and full admission into
the party system.


4.1 Introduction
.After working through the previous blocks we hope that you have not only understood
the basic concepts but also their interrelationship. We hope that you have got some idea
about the working of a political party, pressure group, the influence of public opinion and
its interrelationship with a political party. How does a political party acquire stability and
what is the politics of coalition or alliance.
Since a political party does not exist in isolation but is the creature of modern and
modernizing political systems, we would try. in these blocks, to understand and analyze
the various types of political systems. In Addition, we shall see what is political stability,
what are the forces that bring about stability, what is the role of political parties in this
context and how do they affect political development. In this context we would focus our
attention on three types of political system': the single party, the multi- party and the two-
party systems. However before we analyze these system we have included a reading by
Huntington in which he talks about the traditional political systems. The idea is to give
you a background of how power existed in the traditional systems. Huntington suggests
that traditional political systems have existed in different shapes from city-states, tribal
kingdoms, absolute monarchies to bureaucratic empires, aristocracies, theocracies etc.
Traditionally, two patterns have exited as political structure; centralized or the
bureaucratic states and the dispersed or feudal state (the role of the monarch in each type
either active or passive.) In the former case the monarch has more authority than in the
latter where power and office are hereditary in an aristocratic class.
Therefore, one finds a considerable degree of political and social mobility in case of a
bureaucratic state while a dispersed feudal state is highly stratified. Legitimacy and
authority lie with the monarch in the former political structure while in the latter, he
shares legitimacy with the nobility whose authority over the subjects is independent of
the monarch's authority over then. In other words, the monarch shares legitimacy but
sources of authority of the nobility over their subjects are not dependence upon the
monarch but independent. In both political structures, the role of the monarch can be
different, i.e. active or passive. Huntington has given a table citing examples and for your
convenience we are reproducing it below.

Table 1: Tradiiional political systems'
Political Structure Role of Monarch
Centralized Roman Empire Korea
(Bureaucratic) Ethiopia Meiji Japan
Dispersed ' China Thailand
(Feudal) Medieval Europe Tokugawa Japan
 Both monarchies-ruling and oligarchical are different from the modem parliamentary
 monarchies. A comparison between the traditional and the modern is clearly evident from
the table produced below:
Table2: Types of contemporary monarchies**
 Traditional Modem
Principal function Rule and reign Reign Reign
of Monarch
Principal source of Monarchy Monarchy People
Principle efficient Monarchy Army and Cabinet Parties and
authorities bureaucracy bureaucracy Parliament
Army and perhaps
Scope of political Narrow to medium Narrow Broad
In contrast to bureaucratic system the feudal politics manifest fewer political institutions,
less complicated administrative structure, lesser specialization and division of labour,
inequality of opportunity, less social mobility. In short, a lower level of political
modernization is found in dispersed or feudal politics than in the bureaucrat is system.
Now that a background has been established, we would try to analyze the various types of
party systems„ viz-a-viz. One party, Multi-party and Two-party system.
In a political system, if at least two parties co-exist with no single party enjoying
overwhelming superiority over other or others, then the system is a pluralistic party
system. If on the other hand, one predominates then it becomes a 'dominant' party
* Huntington, Political Order in Changing Societies, 1968

system. Within pluralistic system exist 'two party' and 'multi party' systems that are based
upon functional differences in democratic institutions. However a flexible two-party
system is closer to multi party system. Similarly the notion of a 'dominant' party system
serves as kind of connection or a bridge between one party and pluratistic party systems.
The fundamental difference between the two-party and the multiparty system is the
number of parties. In the former case for practical purposes two parties share the
parliamentary seats one assuming the entire charge of government, the other taking the
responsibility of free expression of criticism or the opposition. In case of multi-party
system, there is a coalition among various parties Who may differ in their programmes
and supporters. Coalitions are inherently unstable, therefore, in multi party systems
sustaining a coalition and ensuring parliamentary majority remains a constant problem.
Since majority of one party regimes that existed prior to World War II were either
communist or fascist, there is a general tendency to believe that their structures are
inherent in the one party system. You will find out when you go through the prescribed
readings that there are differences between the dictatorial regimes in general and one-
party system in particular. Moreover the one-party situation differs from country to
country in term of its ideology and the level of party development in the country. It
would be clear to you by now that whether it is one-party, two-party or multi-party
system, the basic function of political parries operating in these systems is to promote
political stability and ensure peaceful succession/transfer of power from one party to
another or from one set of individuals to another.
4.2 Traditional political systems and political change
4.3 Required readings
Reading 15 Political Order in Changing Societies (S.P. Huntington) PP .104-53
4.4 Self Learning Questions
Analyze the Political structure in the traditional political systems.
Points to note
Types of political structure -- centralized or bureaucratic state and dispersed
or feudal state.
In a centralized or bureaucratic state the monarch has more authority, there is
a considerable degree of social and political mobility and authority and
legitimacy both lie with the monarch.
The monarch shares legitimacy with the nobility in dispersed or feudal state,
since power and office arc hereditary in an aristocratic class. The sources of
authority of the nobility over their subjects are independent of the monarch.
A feudal state is highly stratified i.e. there is less social and political
Monarchies are of two types in traditional systems -- ruling and oligarchical.

See table 2 in the introduction to bocks four and five. Make a comparative analysis of
traditional and modern monarchies.
Points to note
The principal function of the monarch and the principal source of legitimacy.
The principle efficient authorities and the scope of political participation.
Comparison between the modern and traditional monarchies.
4.5 Single party system
4.6 Required readings
Reading 16 Political Parties (Maurice Duverger) PP 255-80
4.7 Self Learning Questions
Practice has preceded theory in case of the single party. Critically analyze.
Points to note
Evolution of the single party.
Structural similarity between the single parties and the parties of democratic
Internal structure and variations in single party systems.
General characteristics of the single party.
Discuss the fundamental differences between the fascist and communist single parties.
Point to note
— Doctrinal difference between fascism and communism -- the former having a
pessimistic approach attains; the optimistic approach of the latter.
On the whole, the fact that from the social point of view the definition of
communist parties as the tools of the proletariat to overthrow the authority of
the middle classes and the fascist parties as 'tools of the middle classes to
retain their power and prevent its falling into the hands of the proletariat'

corresponds to reality. The former enlists working class to overthrow the
middle class state while fascism works to oppose this overthrow. Thus for the
birth and development of the latter the presence of a communist party is
- Similarities between fascism: and communism in terms of relying more on
working class, general framework and structure.
- Communist party adopts elections for the appointment of leaders while
fascist parties rely on a system of nomination. Other differences are e.g. in
terms of 'basic elements' of the parties, the admission or recruitment policy,
membership, system of expulsion, and the differences in conception and
extent of the role of the single parties and their aims.
4.8 Two party system
4.9 Required readings
Reading 17 Political Parties (Maurice Duverger) PP 207-28
4.10 Self Learning Questions
Is two party system specifically an Anglo-Saxon phenomenon? Discuss
Points to note
— Some Anglo-Saxon countries have a multiparty system e.g. Australia,
Canada, while a number of Latin American countries have two-party system
and there is an evolution towards it in some continental European states. e.g.
Germany and Italy.
- Within the Anglo-Saxon two party system a clear distinction should be made
between Britain and America in terms of survival of two party system,
structure of parties, roles and aims of the American and the British parties.
- Evolution towards a two party system in Latin American and continental
European states. This dualist trend has been a. result of the suppression of the
single party.
According to Maurice Duverger three types of two-party systems have succeeded one
another since the nineteenth century. Why is it so? Discuss.

Points to note
— a bourgeois two party system due to 'property franchise'
— the development of Radicalism
— the development of Socialism - the establishment of universal suffrage and
the appearance of socialist parties at the parliamentary level.
4.11 Multi-partism
4.12 Required readings
Reading 18 Political Parties (Maurice Duvergcr) pp 228-54
4.13 Self Learning Questions
How would you describe the multi-party system? What is meant by tri-partism' quadri-
partism and poly-parties? Discuss.
Points to note
What is meant by the multi-Party system and how is it formed.
Descrption of tri-Partism quadri-partism and poly- partism with examples.
Discuss proportional representation with reference to the multi- party system.
4.14 Political stability
4.15 Required readings
Reading 19 Political Order in Changing Societies (S.P. Huntington) PP 1-92
Reading 20 Comparative Politics (Gabriel A. Almond) (G. Bingham. Powell, Jr.)
PP 71-76
4.16 Self Learning Questions
"I do know that there is no greater necessity for men who live in communities than that
they be governed, self governed if possible well governed if they are fortunate, but in any
event, governed".
Do you think that a political community is fragmented where political institutions have
little power? Critically analyze.

Points to note
— Difference between the developed and the developing/modernizing countries.
- What are political institutions
- Social forces and political institutions.
Strength of political organization and scope of support.
- Level of institutionalization.
Question 24
Discuss the impact of modernization on politics.
Points to note
What is meant by modernization?
- Aspects of modernization more relevant to politics— social mobilization and
economic development
Different stages of political modernization.
Stability of a modernizing political system depends upon the strength of its political
parties. Elaborate.
Point to note
- Strength of political parties depends upon the level of institutionalization i.e.
institutionalized mass support.
- This strength is inversely proportional to the susceptibility of military
intervention in a political system.
Measurement of the institutional strength of a party.
Its ability to survive its founder
- Its organizational complexity and depth
party loyalty.


The second Martial Law was imposed in 1969 after Ayub Khan resigned as a result of
mass agitation. However, the period between 1969-71 saw the emergence of competitive
politics and facilitated the process of party development. The election results of 1970
brought to the forefront the two-party system as Pakistan People's Party from West and
the Awami League (AL) from East Pakistan emerged as strong parties, still both were
regionally based. However, the system could not be described clearly as the two-party
system as we see in the advanced industrialised countries. Besides PPP and AL that
emerged as strong leading parties, there were other minor parties. Once again we find that
the political system in Pakistan did not exactly correspond with multi-party system that
we see in some of the European countries. The period from 1971 after the
dismemberment of Pakistan, to 1977, is a classic example of the earliest period i.e. 1947-
58. This was also a period of dominant party system in which the smaller parties either
decayed or made coalitions. However, due to government patronage PPP was able to
acquire stability and strength.
Once again the political process was overthrown in coup d'etat by the military in July
1977. During the period of Martial Law (1977-85) political parties arid political
associations were banned and political parties were excluded from the political process. It
is interesting to note that 1983 M RD movement indicated that despite military rule and its
efforts to do away with the party system, political parties were not totally eliminated from
the political scene. In order to minimize the significance of political parties, non-party
based elections were held in 1985. However, once the parliaments were instituted and the
government was installed it was realized that in modernizing countries where even
restricted participatory process is restored, it becomes difficult to do away with the
political parties. The interesting change of 1985 electoral process was that despite non-
party based elections, with the parliament two parties emerged the ruling party, new
Muslim League called the Official Parliamentary Group (OPG) and the opposition group.
From a period of 1985 to May 1988 under non-party system, Pakistan began to see the
revival of political parties. This clearly indicates that political activity how-so-ever
restricted, necessitates the emergence of a party system.
In August, 1988, through sheer accident of history the death of president Zia, led to the
holding of party based elections. In November 1988, the elections were held. The results
of 1988 elections reveal that political parties are a pivot for participatory politics. Without
political parties individual freedom, competitive politics and route to democracy cannot
occur. It is pre-mature to give any label to the kind of direction that Pakistani party
system will grow in the post '88 period. However, one thing is evident that in
modernizing societies like Pakistan, political parties cannot be completely eliminated
even though their development may be hampered and their growth delayed by the
interventionist regimes. Political parties and their development is imperative for a country
like ours.

5.2 1947-58
 5.3 Required readings
Reading 21 Political System of Pakistan (Khalid Bin Sayeed) .,PP 60-93
Reading 22 Polities in. Pakistan (Khalid Bin Sayeed) PP 32-53
Reading 23 Political Parties in Pakistan (1947-1958) (M. Rafique Afzal) PP 240-45
5.4 Self Learning Questions
Discuss the emergence of civil-military dominance during 1947-58, with reference to
social and ethnic conflicts.
Points to note
— West Pakistan was dominated by land lords and religious clashes that was
different from East Pakistan where despite economic backwardness the lower
middle class groups were emerging against the domination of land owning
classes and urban based leaders.
— Emergence of growing conflict between Punjabis and Bengalis and within
West Pakistan.
— Ineffectiveness of Muslim League to run such a geographically and
ethnically split country.
5.5 1958-69
 5.6 Required readings
Reading 24 Political Parties in Pakistan 1958-1969 (M. Rafique Afzal) PP1-21 and 38-52
Reading 25 Pakistan: the Enigma of Political Development (Lawrence. Ziring) PP
Reading 26 Political Order in Changing Societies (S.P. Huntington) PP 251-55
Reading 27 The Ayub Khan Era (Lawrence Ziring) PP 23-43
Reading 28 A Political System of Pakistan (Khalid Bin Sayeed) PP 101-26

5.7 Self Learning Questions
Do you think that the first Martial Law was imposed to exclude political parties from the
political system? Explain it in the light of measures taken by the Ayub regime during
1958-62. Did he succeed in terminating their activities? Comment
Points to note
— From the time of the imposition of martial law till June 1962 political parties
remained under a formal ban.
Various short term and long ranged policies in various sectors to justify the
continuance of martial law and the banning of party politics.
Activities of the politicians were highly restricted and many were arrested
Prumalgation of PRODA (Public Representatives Officers Disqualification
Act) followed by PODO (Public Offices Disqualification Order) and EBDO
(Elective Bodies Disqualification Order).
Political Parties struggled to survive the period of ban under martial law, and
the politicians used every opportunity to assert themselves and mobilize
public opinion.
In June 1962, a political parties bill was drafted and passed by the national
assembly and the president in July. Thus political parties were revived and
political activity restored signifying the fact that it is difficult to do away
with political parties in modernizing systems.
Do you agree that the constitution of 1962 established 'constitutional autocracy'?
Points to note
Ayub's arguments about the non-suitability of parliamentary democracy.
Elections to the office of the president indirectly through eighty thousand
'basic democrats.
Wide range of presidential powers especially financial powers and powers of
legislation. Moreover his removal from the office became almost an

- Limited provincial autonomy with the provincial executive who was
completely subservient to the president since the governor who appointed the
provincial executive was appointed by the president and held office during
his pleasure.
Judiciary was not only kept under control, its powers were restricted. e.g. the
president had the power to appoint the Chief justice of the Supreme Court
without. reference to any body and other judges in consultation with him.
Similarly the president could appoint a judge in case of a High Court in
consultation with the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court and the governor of
the province.
- Fundamental Rights were not provided, legal protection and mostly listed
under "Principles of Law-Making".
5.8 1969-71
5.9 Required readings
Reading 29 The military and politics in Pakistan: 1947-86 (Hasan Askari Rizvi)
PP 161-93
Reading 30 Pakistan: The enigma of political development (Lawrence Ziring)
PP 97-100 and 87-89
5.10 Self Learning Questions
Analyse the circumstances under which Ayub Khan handed over the reigns of the country
to Yahya Khan. Why did he not hand over power according to constitution of 1962?
Points to note
— Ineffectiveness of civil administration and constitutional authority.
Withdrawal of support for Ayub Khan by the army itself, mainly due to
Taskent Declaration and withdraw! of Agartaia conspiracy case.
- Serious political implications in transfer of power in accordance with 1962
constitution. This was possible in theory but is practice meant serious
political crisis and law and order situation.
- Rise of oppositions against Ayub in both provinces and countrywide political

Critically analyse the results of the election of 1970 with reference to the emergence of
competitive politics.
Points to note
— Emergency of Awami League and People's Party as the main victorious
parties in East and West Pakistan respectively.
- Nearly twenty percent of seats secured by other parties and independents.
- Elections results also brought to the fore front the extent of regionalism in the
Critically analyze the turn of events in the wake of 1970 elections that ultimately led to
the dismemberment of Pakistan.
Points to note
— Results of 1970 election strengthening the extent of political alienation and
frustration which had developed in many parts of Pakistan and Particularly in
East Pakistan.
— Awami League's stand on six-point formula as the only basis for a
Postponement of the session of the national assembly.
Military action in East Pakistan to assert the power of the central government
the beginning of an all out civil war between Pakistan military and its
supporters and Awami League and the supporters of Bangladesh movement.
India's role both political and indirect military intervention as well as an all
out invasion on East Pakistan.
Other developments e.g. Kissinger's visit to China creating apprehensions in
India about a U.S.-Pakistan-China axis against India and Soviet Union. As
well as the statement by Yahya Khan about Chinese intervention in case
India attacked, after the vague promise of Chinese support brought back by
the delegation headed by Bhutto that visited China in the first week of
November. Since the Chinese did not contradict the statement it caused
Indians serious anguish. This also led to Indo-Sovict Treaty of friendship and

Question 32
Why was transferring of power to the political representatives delayed? Was it delibrate?
Points to Note
— Results of 1970 elections fully reflected the existing polarisation of the
electrorate along regional lines.
— Role of the military regime.
— Role of People's Party and Awami League.
5.11 1971-1977
 5.12 Required readings
Reading 31 The Military and Politics in Pakistan 1947-86 (Hasan-Askari Rizvi)
 PP 194-217
Reading 32 1973 Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.
Reading 33 Problems of Contemprory Pakistan (J. Henry Korson) PP 30-50
Reading 34 Contemprory Pakistan (Manzoor ud din Ahmad) PP 13-27
5.13 Self Learning Questions
Disscuss the steps taken by the Bhutto government in the post'71 period to limit military's
political role and reassert civilian supremacy.
Point to note
— Bhutto assumed power amidst grave crisis and confusion. The separation of
East Pakistan had caused unprecedented grief and anguish.
Bhutto not only enjoyed mass appeal, he was the leader of the majority party
in the national assembly. Moreover the supreme court of Pakistan
unanimously held Yahya Khan's act of assuming power as usurpation and
declared it "illegal and unconstitutional". Despite the fact that the judgment
came four months later, nevertheless it did help in strengthening the civilian-
government against the military. Finally military's status and reputation as a
nation building force suffered greatly due to the fall of East Pakistan.
Initial steps towards asserting civilian supremacy over military, included
criticism of military involvement in politics. In addition various decisions
were taken for the removal of several officers, setting up of a commission to
look into the 1971 military debacle, restructuring of military high command,

reduction of chief of staffs tenure and services chiefs were not to be granted
- The 1973 constitution introduced major changes in the administrative set up
of the military high command.
Discuss parliamentary democracy as envisaged in the constitution of 1973
Points to note
— Parliamentary from Government enshrined in the constitution.
Power of the Prime Minister in the constitution.
Balance of power between the President and the Prime Minister.
5.14 1977-88
5.15 Required readings
Reading 35 Pakistan under Martial Law 1977-85 (Mohammad Waseem) PP 1-10,
22-27, 33-93
Reading 36 Military and Politics in Pakistan 1947-86 (Hasan Askari Rizvi)
PP - 225-62
5.16 Self Learning Questions
Discuss Zia's Martial Law regime in the light of Mohammad Waseem's reading. Do you
agree that during this period various new phenomena emerged to give the period a
specific identity different from the previous Martial Laws?
Points to note
— Zia's regime can be divided into three phases namely:
the period of adjustment'
the 'period of stabilization'
the 'period of change, movement and transition'.
The Bhutto phenomenon and the problems of legitimacy of the Martial Law
The Afghanistan factor
The MRD movement
- The non party based elections of 1985 and RCO 1985.
- Comparison with the previous Martial Law regimes.

Critically analyze the Revival of Constitutional Order (RCO) 1985.
Points to Note
— Concentration of power in the hands of the president.
Shift of the government authority from the parliament which is the traditional
source of the powers of the prime minister. Parliament is not the source of
presidential powers in RCO 1985.
The constitution of 1973 envisaged a parliamentary system; therefore the
prime minister was committed to the continuation of parliament since his
own fate was tied with it. The president does not lose anything according to
RCO 1985 by abrogating it as happened on May 29, 1988.
Problems in the maintenance of rule of law.
Question 37
Critically analyze the failures and successes of the 1983 MRD movements.
Points to Note:
— Political' character of the MRD movement
The Dubai factor
MRD unity
Government's reaction to the movement.
5.17 1988 to date
5.18 Required readings
Readings 37 Monthly 'Herald' November, 1988 Election '88 issue and December,
1988 PP 20-91
3.19 Self Learning Questions
Critically analyse the election results of November 16, 1988.
Points to Note
— Number of seat won by various parties in the assembly.
— PPP emerging as the single majority Party in the national assembly.


6.1 Introduction
According to Huntington a political party is an important modernizer. He has discussed
its evolution and development in four phases: We have talking about these phases in
detail in block one. Our focus in these blocks will be on the constitution, development
and decay of political parties in Pakistan. In most of the literature appearing on political
parties in Pakistan it is generally argued that political parties have failed to develop a
party system in Pakistan. The reasons for the failure are many--factional nature of
leadership, lack of discipline, weak organization, changing loyalties -- i.e. failure to
develop a competitive party system. This failure of the political parties, it is argued,
facilitated the intervention of military into politics. Practorianism or military intervention
is perceived as resulting from the weakness of political parties.
We shall see whether political parties have failed to develop a viable and competitive
party system, or there are some other factors. We shall try to analyze the origin evolution
and development of political parties in Pakistan. In this context we shall study all the
factions that have emerged or decayed as a political party came into being.
In order to have some understanding of the problems of party development in Pakistan,
we shall try to focus on the following Factors.
(a) Type and continuity in leadership
(b) Organization
(c) Ideology
(d) Source of funding
(e) Membership
We shall concentrate on following major and minor parties and alliances.
i) Pakistan Muslim League,
ii) Pakistan People's Partly
iii) National Awami Party
v) Republican Party
vi) Jamiat-i-Islami
vii) Jamiat-al-Uldma-i-Pakistan
viii) Mohijir Qaumi Movement

6.2 Pakistan Muslim League
6.3 Required reading.
Reading 38 Pakistan: A Political Stud (Keith alard) PP 39-76
Reading 39 Party Politics in Pakistan (K.K. Aziz) PP 70-94
Reading 40 Political Parties in Pakistan. 1958-1969 Vol: 11(M. RaFique Afzal)
PP 53-78
Reading 41 Pakistan under Martial Law, 1977-1985 (Muhammad Waseeni)
PP 46-53, 74-88
Reading 42 Sec Reading 37
6.4 Self Learning Questions
Question 39
Did Muslim League enjoy absolute power during the first seven years of independence
Points to note
— Identification of Muslim League with the country and the state by the people.
- Absence of substantial opposition parties.
Absence of general elections to test the popularity of Muslim League.
Question 40
Critically examine the role of Muslim League during 1947-58. How far does the
responsibility for the failure of parliamentary system rest on Muslim League. Discuss.
Points to note
- Due to the credit for leading the Pakistan movement, Muslim League
continued to dominate even after independence.
However, it suffered from a number of problems, such as;
A complete lack of leadership. After the Quaid and Liaqat , no leaders
from the League could create confidence to lead the p at was in the grip
of conflicts.

- The organizational structure was not attended to. It did not receive the much
needed attention and therefore constantly declined. In this respect local
conflicts which led provincial conflicts, combining of the office of president
of Muslim League and Prime Minister of Pakistan and the same at provincial
level played an important part in further declining the organizational base of
the party.
- Muslim League failed to provide a meaningful programme for the basic
problems of the country e.g. In effective attempts for the implementation of
land reforms. These attempts were easily failed by the strong opposition of
vested interests which not only led to frustration but left the party without
strong supporters who could mobilize public opinion.
Absence of strong opposition - a much needed ingredient for smooth running
of parliamentary government.
6.5 Pakistan People's Party
6.6 Required readings
Reading 43 The Pakistan People's Party: Phases one and two (Anwar H. Syed),
in Pakistan: The Long View, edited by Lawrence Ziring, Ralph
Braibanti and W: Howiad WFigging: PP 70-116
Reading, 44 Changing Party Structures in Pakistan: From Muslim League to
People's Party" (Philip E. Jones) in Contemporary Pakistan, edited by
Manzoor -ud- din Ahmad PP 114-39
Reading 45 See Reading 37
6.7 Self Learning Questions
Discuss the circumstances under which PPP emerged on the political scene of Pakistan.
Points to note
- Deepening political crisis during Ayub era
- Exit of Ayub Khan.
lden and examine some of the major problems faced by PPP after it came to power in
Points to note
— Crisis,
of integration

Problems of factionalism Question- 43

What type of economic and social policies were spelled out of the PPP in the Foundation
Documents'? Discuss
Point to note
— Social justice and establishment of a classless society
A constitutional democratic order based on universal adult franchise
— Civil rights and liberties
Full remuneration to workers for their labour, elimination of feudalism, self-
help projects unions, fixation of minimum wage rates. free health care for
peasants, educational facilities etc.
6.8 National Awami Party
6.9 Required readings
Reading 46 Political Parties in Pakistan 1947-58 (M. Rafiquc Afzal) PP 219-22
Reading 47 Political Parties in Pakistan 1958-69 (M. Rafique. Afzal) PP 108-115
Reading 48 In Afghanistan's Shadow: Baluch Nationalism and Soviet_
 Temptations, Selig S. Harrison PP 41-69 83-91
Reading 49 Interest Groups in South Asia (Talukdar Muneer us Zaman) PP
Reading 50 The NAP Challenge (L.F. Rushbrooke Williams) PP
6.10 Self Learning Questions
Question 44
Discuss the origin of National Awami Party.
Points to note
— Pakistan National Party joined hands with Bhashani led Awam League
dissidents and Ganatantri Dal. The new party emerged at Dacca on 25th July
1957 at the Democratic workers convention.
Question 45
Discuss the role of NAP during and after the first Martial Law.

Points to note
- NAP suffered more than any other party for its views.
- Its top leaders were under detention for a long time.
NAP was formally revived at Dacca in Feb, 1964 and immediately
compaigned for adult franchise and direct elections.
In 1964-65 elections NAP did not follow a uniform policy but joined the
Combined Opposition Parties (COP) on July 24, 1964.
6.11 Jamiat-i-Ulama-i-Islam
6.12 Required readings
Reading 51 Political Parties in Pakistan 1947-58 (M. Rafique Afzal) PP 31-37
Reading 52 Political Parties in Pakistan 1958-69 Vol: (M. Rafique Afzal)
PI' 84-91
Reading 53 See Reading 37
6.13 Self Learning Questions
Discuss the origin ofJamiat-i-Ulama-i-Islam.
Points to note
Background of jam iat-i-Ulama-i-Hind.
Elections of 1945-46 moved the pro-League ulama to organize them selves
into a separate party in order to counter the propaganda of the pro-Congress
The inauguration of the new party Jamiat-i-Ulama-i-Islam was formally
announced in Calcutta during October 26-29, 1945, and Maulana Shabbir
Ahmed Usmani was elected its president in absentia.
6.14 Republican Party
6.15 Required readings
Reading 54 Party Politics in Pakistan 1947-58 (KIK. Aziz) PP 105-10
Reading 55 Political Parties in' Pakistan 1947-58 (M. Rafique Afzal) PP 195-98

6.16 Self Learning Questions
Discuss the origin and rise of the Republican Party.
Points to note
— Political situation in the country,
The Party was formed with Dr. Khan Sahib as its convener, Among the
Muslim Leaguers who joined the Republican party were those who were
opposed Daultana as well as those who were opposed Khuhro.
The party had the blessings of President lskandar Mirza and Governor
6.17 Jamat-i-Islami of Pakistan
6.18 Required readings
Reading 56 Jamat-i-Islami of Pakistan (Kalim Bahadur) PP 139-211
Reading 57 Political Parties in Pakistan 1947-58 (M. Rafique Afzal) PP 37-39
Reading 58 Political Parties in Pakistan 1958-69 Vol: H (M. Rafique Afzal)
PP 91-100
Reading 59 See Reading 37
6.19 Self Learning Questions
Discuss the Organizational structure ofJamiat-i-islami of Pakistan.
Points to note
— According to its constitution the foremost position is held by the Arnir
elected through direct ballot by the members.
Afterwards are the Majlis.i.Shura (Consultative Council) Majlis.i.Amla
(Executive Council) Qaiyyum (Secretary General) and seven departments
directly under the Amir'.
Discuss the ideology of Jarnat-i-Islami. Is the political philosophy of Mawdudi the
ideology of Jama'at?

Points to note
— Freedom of will and predestination.
Islamic Ethics and Islamic Economics
— Social Justice
— Individual and Society
— Socialism. Communism, Capitalism and Islam.
6.20 Jamiat-al-Ulma-e-Pakistan
6.21 Required readings
Reading 60 Political Parties in Pakistan 1958-69 Vol:II (M. Rafique Afzal)
PP 79-80
Reading 61 See Reading 37
6.22 Self Learning Questions
Question 50
Discuss the organisation ofJmiat-al-Ulma-i-Pakistan.
Points to note
- JUP was organized by the ulama and mashaikh of the Brelvi school of
thought in 1948.
6.23 Mohajir Qaumi Movement
6.24 Required readings
Reading 62 Sec Reading 37
Reading 63 MQM's Charter in daily, Dawn Nov. 1988.
6.25 Self Learning Questions
Question 51
Analys the factors that led to the creation of Mohajir Qaurni Movement (MQM) in

Points to note
— MQM was created in 1983 but the foundations of the party were laid in 1978
with the formation of All Pakistan Mohajir Students Organization (APMSO)
at the Karachi University. Altaf Hussain was the founder Chairman and
Azim Tariq its General Secretary.
MQM has completely changed the complexion of Sindh's urban politics.
The 25-point charter of Resolutions acts as the basic document and manifesto
of MQM.


7.1 Introduction
In block two we have studied the formation and types of pressure/interest groups. Not
only that we also learnt that pressure/interest groups may not be political in nature. On
the contrary, they are usually non-political organization whose primary visible activity is
not political but social or economic.
In this block we shall try and analyze the organization and mobilization of pressure
interest groups. In addition, we shall also study how systematic changes affect group
development and how are these groups mobilized and organized in Pakistan. We shall see
the main pressure/interest groups that operate in Pakistani politics e.g. the business and
industrial communities, labour unions, teachers associations, etc. The role of military and
bureaucracy as pressure groups shall also be considered.
7.2 Role of major pressure/interest groups in Pakistani politics.
 Required readings
Reading 64 Interest Groups and Development (Stanley Kochanek) PP175-90, 292-311
Reading 65 Elite Politics in an Ideological State:
The Case of Pakistan (Asaf Hussian) PP 61-110, 120-45
Reading 66 "Public Policy. Financial-industrial groups and development of
Economic Institutions in Pakistan: The experience of 1960's"
(Saeed Shafqat) in Pakistan Studies (Book of Reading) PP 206-39
7.4 Self Learning Questions
Discuss the characteristics of the business community in Pakistani as an interest/pressure
Points to note
Though business community is the most highly organised social group in
Pakistan, still it suffers from social diversities and uneven patterns of the
growth of business.
— Collective action has tended to be usually formal and ceremonial.
Critically analyze the factors that have hampered the business community in Pakistan to
mobilize public support. What has been the role of press in this context?

Points to note
— Characteristics of business and character of the political system have resulted in
the emergence of a business-government relationship based on individual rather
than collective action.
— Business associations lack independent analytical and research capabilities.
— They have failed to establish a permanent foothold as owners or managers of
major newspaper or financial journals.
Question 54
How do Interest Groups operate in Pakistani politics or the governmental process? What
are its consequences? Analyze.
Points to note
— Participation of interest groups has been limited and confined to individuals.
It has led to lack of governmental accountability as well as government's
difficulty in gaining public support for its actions eventually leaving the
government isolated when pressures began to build up against a regime and a
Question 55
Critically examine the role of the bureaucratic elite in Pakistani politics.
Points to note
- Dominance of bureaucratic and military elite has been the consequence of the
absence of effective political system and vice- versa.
- Power became highly centralized.
Therefore public policy took two distinguished characteristics; restricted
participation and distributive benefits.
Question 56
Do you agree that failure to develop a competitive party system has led to the
intervention of military into politics? Discuss.
Points to note
— Absence of well organized political parties.
Personality cult in political parties.
Military interference in political affairs.

Afzal M. Rafique, 1976, Political Parties in Pakistan 1947-58, National Commission on
Historical, and Cultural Research, Islamabad.
. 1987, Political Parties in Pakistan 1958-1969, - Vol. 11, National
Institute of Historical and Cultural Research. Islamabad.
Ahmad, Manzoor ud din, (ed), 1980, Contemprory Pakistan, Royal Book Company,
Almond, Gabriel A., and Powell Jr., G.Bingham, 1978, Comparative Politics, Little,
Brown and Company (Inc).
Apter, David E., 3965, The Politics of Modernization, University of Chicago Press,
Aziz K.K., 1976, Party Politics in Pakistan, National Commission on Historical and
Cultural Research, Islamabad.
Bahadur, Kalim, 1978, Jamat-i-Islami of Pakistan, Progressive Books, Lahore.
Callard, Keith, 1957. Pakistan: A Political Study. George Allen & Unwin Ltd. London.
Duverger, Maurice, 1964, (Third edition), Political Parties, translated by Barbara and
Robert North with a foreword by D.W.Brogan, Methuen & Co. Ltd, London.
1972, Party Politics and Pressure Groups:
A Comparative introduction, translated by Robert Wagover, London.
Harrison, Selig S., 1981, In Afghanistan's Shadow: Baluch Nationalism and Soviet
Temptations, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, New York.
Huntington, S.P., 1968, Political Order in Changing Societies, Yale University Press,
New Haven.
Hussain, Asaf,1979, Elite Politics in an Ideological State: The Case of Pakistan,
W,k1.Dawson &Sons Ltd, Kent England.
Jones, Philip, E., 1980, "Changing Party Structure:, in Pakistan: From Muslim League to
People's Party': in Contemprory Pakistan edited by Manzoor-ud-din Ahmad.'
Kochunek Stanley A., 1983 Interest Groups and Political .Development,

Kosson, .J. Henry, 1974, Prohlems of Contaniprory Pakistan, P. Brill, Leiden, The
La Pulombara, Joseph, and Weiner. Myron 1966, "The Origin and Development of
Political Parties" in Political Parties and Political Development edited hyJoseph La
Palombara and Myron Weiner. eds. 1966, Political Parties and Political Development,
Princeton University Press, Princeton. New York.
Leeds, CA., 1968, Politics, Macdonald & Evans Ltd. London.
Rizvi, Hassan Askari, 1968, The Military and Politics. in Pakistan, Procressive
Publishers, Lahore.
Sayecd, Khalid Bin, 1967, The • Political System of Pakistan Honginton Mifflin
Company, Boston.
1980, Politics in Pakistan, Praeger Publishers, New York.
Shafqat, Saeed, 1988, "Public Policy, Financial-Inthistrical Groups and Development of
Economics Institution in Pakistan: The Case of 1960's' in Pakistan Studies (Book of
Reading), Civil Services Academy, Lahore.
Syed. Anwar H., 1977, "The Pakistan Peoples Party: Phases One and Two", in Pakistan:
The Long View edited by Lawrence Ziring, Ralph Braibunti, and W.1-loward Wriggins.
Waseem, Mohammad, 1987, Pakistan Under Martial Law, Vanguard, Lahore.
Williams. L.F. Rushbrooke, 19 , The NAP Challange.
Zaman, Talukdar Munecr, Uz, 19' , Interest Groups in South Asia.
Ziring Lawrence 1971, The Ayub -Khan Era: Politics in Pakistan .195P,-69. 'Syracuse
University Press, New York.
, 1980, Pakistan: The Enigma of Political Development, Wm Dawson
At Sons Ltd, 'Kent, England.
Ziring, Lawrence, Braibunti, Ralph and Wriggins, W. Howard, (reds),
1977, Pakistan: The Long View, Duke University Press, Durham, N.C.
Dawn (daily), November, 1988.
Government of Pakistan, 1973, Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.
Herald (monthly) November, 1988 (Election'88 issue) and December 1988, Karachi.


Code No. 537


Study Guide
(M. Sc. Pakistan Studies)
(With special reference to Shah Wall-Allah
Sir Syed, Iqbal and Quaid-i-Azam)
Code: 537 Blocks: 1-9
Department of Pakistan Studies
Faculty of Social Sciences & Humanities
Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad

CODE No. 537
All Rights Reserved with the Publisher
1st Edition 1987
Year of Printing 2019
Quantity 4,000
Price 150/-
 Printing Co-ordinator -- Management Committee for P.P.U.
Printer M. Arif Younis Printer
Publisher Allama 'Oat Open University,

Chairman of Course Team: _laved lqbal Syed
Dean, Faculty of Social Sciences and
Allama iqbai Open University
Dr. Sikandar Hayat
Department of History
Quaid-i-Azam University
Dr. Lubna Saif
Department of Pakistan Studies
Mama lqbal Open University
Editor: Khalid Mahmood
Course Coordinator: Qr. Lubna Saif

I. Organization of the Course
1.1 Structure of the Programme
1.2 How to use Reading material
2. Assessment
3. Prescribed Reading List
4. Course Description
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Objectives
5.3 Historical and Social Context: The Muslim Rule
 5.3.1 Required Readings
 5.3.2 Self-Learning Questions
5.4 Hindu-Muslim Communalism
 5.4.1 Required Readings
 5.4.2 Self-Learning Questions
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Objectives
6.3 Political Philosophy of Shah Wali-Allah
 6.3.1 Required Readings
 6.3.2 Self-Learning Questions
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Objectives
7.3 Syed Ahmad Khan's attitude towards the British Rule
7.3.1 Reguired Readings
7.3.2 Self-Learning Questions

7.4 Syed Ahmad Khan and Western Education
7.4.1 Required Readings
7.4.2 Self-Learning Questions
 8.1 Introduction
 8.2 Objectives
 8.3 Syed Ahmad Khan and the British system of Representative
 8.3.1 Required Readings
 8.3.2 Self-Learning Questions
 8.4 Syed Ahmad Khan and the Indian National Congress
 8.4.1 Required Readings
 • 8.4.2 Self-Learning Questions
 - 8.5 Syed Ahmad Khan and the growth of Muslim
 "Group Consciousness".
 8.5.1 Required Readings
 8.5.2 Self-Learning Questions
 9.1 Introduction
 9.2 Objectives
 9.3 Allama Iqbal and Nationalism
 9.3. 1Required Readings
 9.3.2 Self-Learning Questions
 9.4 Allama Iqbal and Indian Nationalism
9.4.1 Required Readings -
9.4.2 Self-Learning Questions
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Objectives
10.3 The Idea of a Separate Muslim State
10.3.1 Required Readings
10.3.2 Self-Learning Questions

11.1 Introduction
11.2. Objectives
11.3 Quaid-i-Azam and British Parliamentary System of Government
11.3.1 Required Readings
11.3.2 Self-Learning Questions
 11.4 Quaid-i-Azam and Hindu-Muslim Question
11.4.1 Required Readings
11.4.2 Self-Learning Questions
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Objectives
 12.3 Quaid-i-Azam and Muslim Nationalism
12.3.1 Required Readings
12.3.2 Self-Learning Questions
12.4 Lahore Resolution
12,4.1 Required Readings
12.4.2 Self-Learning Questions
13,1 Introduction
13.2 Objectives
 13.3 Ideological Thought of Quaid-i-Azam
13.3.1 Required Readings
13.3.2 Self-Learning Questions

1.1 Structure of the Programme
The course has been structured to make it an easy reading. It
would be possible for you to do the required work within the
stipulated period. This three credit hours course consists of nine
blocks, reading of one block May take not more than two weeks
of time, thus the total study period will be of 18 weeks.
A course description given in this guide will enable you to have a
overall view of the course. •
Since the course work of one blbck will include studying the
prescribed reading material and carrying out the various self-
learning questions, you are required to spend two weeks on each
We have organised this course to enable you to acquire the skill
of self-learning. For each block an introduction is given to help
you develop an objective analysis of the major and sub themes
discussed in the prescribed reading material. Besides this, objec-
tives of the block are very specifically laid down to facilitate in
developing a clear, logical and analytical approach. Major themes
are listed alongwith the prescribed reading material. Prescribed
reading material has been compiled in the form of a Reader. We
expect you to do your study in the suggested manner given in
"how to use reading material".
For this course, 'Fortnightly Tutorials' are arranged in University's
Regional Study Centres. They provide facilities to you to meet
with one another for discussion and mutual help and for group and
individual discussions with the 'Course Guide' and fellows.
These tutorials are not formal 'lectures' .given in any formal
University, rather these are meant for group and individual
discussion with the Course Guide to facilitate you to undertake
part of your learning together.

After completing the study of first 4 blocks the assignment No. 1
is dye. Second assignment is due after the completion of coUrse
work of next 3 blocks. Last 2 blocks will be covered in the final
examination alongwith first 7 blocks.
1.2 How to use Reading Material

As this is a co,Tespondence course. we have organised the
required course work in the following manner to help you in
 evolving a t.elf-learning process in absence formal class room
i) Course Description
ii) Introduction to the block and objectives
iii) Topics or themes, are listed alongwith Required Readings.
Required readings are categorised as compulsory and
Compulsory readings haste been compiled in form of a Reader.
Suggested readings are available in the Central Library and
Regional Office Libraries for study and reference only.
iv) After listing 'Revired Readings', we have given you few
self-learning questions for each topic or theme. These
questions are not only meant to facilitate you in
understanding the required readings but also to provide you
an opportunity to assess yourself how far you have learned.
v) To help you in answering the question, Points to Note are
givea. These points will not only lead you to a better
understanding but will also suggest a direction in which we
expect you to think and analyse. You can of course think of
many more points.
Although you choose your own way of studying the required
reding material, you are advised to follow the steps which
are shown in the study chart that follows.

I Step 11 For clear identification of your reading
4 materials thoroughly read description of the
course and Introduction to the Block
Step 2
Read carefully'the way the Reading Material
is to be used (1.2)
 Complete the first quick reading of your
Step 3
 required study material
 Carefully make the 2nd reading while noting
Step 4 down some of the points you are not able to
fully understand
Carry out the self-learning questions with the
Step 5 help of your study material
Revise your notes. There is every likelihood
that many of those points which you did not
Step 6 previously understand become more clear
you during the process of carrying out self-
learning questions.
Prepare for the tutorial meeting i.e. note down
the points for discussion with other members'
Step 7 of your group and with your Course Guide.

Make a third and final reading of. your study
material. At this stage students are advised to
Step 8 also keep in view the home work assignments
 which they are supposed to complete in
 relation to each block.
For each course the registered student •will be
assessed as following:-
1) Assignments (continuous assessment) see details
as given below.
2) Final . Examination (A three hour written
examination will take place at the end of the
a) For successful completion of each course
the student, will be required to qualify in
each component separately i.e. Assign-
ments, Final Examination.
b) To take final examination the student has
to pass in Assignments by obtaining a
minimum of 40% marks.
i) Assignments are those written exer-
cises which you are required to
complete at your own home or place
of work after having studied
different parts of the prescribed
reading material; within the
scheduled period of study. (please
see the schedule). For this course
you will receive two assignments
which we expect you to complete
within the study period.

ii) This is compulsory course work and
its, successful completion will make
you eligible to take final examina-
tion at the end of the semester.
iii) After completing the assignment you
will send it to the Course Guide,
whose name is already notified to
you for assessment and necessary
guidance. Your Course Guide will
return it after marking and
providing you academic guidance
and supervision.
iv) To qualify each assignment; ybu
have to obtain a minimum of 40% of
total marks.
After completing the study of first 4 blocks the assignment No. 1
is due, (for details• about assignments, see, 2.4). Second
assignment is due after the completion of course work of next 3
blocks. Last 2 blocks will be covered in the final examination
alongwith first 7 blocks.
1.2 How to use Reading Material
As this is a correspondence course, we have organised the
required course work in the following maaner to help you in
evolving a self-learning process in absence of 'formal class room

1. Abbasi , M. Yusuf. "Sir Syed Ahmed Khan and the
 re-awakening of the MUslims,"Journal of
 Pakistan Studies, VoLIT (1980).
2. Ahcad, Jamil-ud-Din Speeches and Writings of Mr. Jinnah, LThore
ed. Sh. Muhammad Ashraf, 1968. Vol: I.
 Ahmed. Man zoor-ud Din "Iqbal and Jinnah on Two Nation Theory".
 Journal of Pakistan Studies, Vol. I (1980).
4. Ahmed; Waheed. Road to Indian Freedom,Lahore: C arvan
 Book House, 1979.
5. Ahmed, Riaz Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, The
 Formative Years,1892-1920,Islamabad:
 National Institute of Historical and
 Cultural Research,1986.
6. Ali, Parveen, Shaukat The Political Philosophy of Iqbal, Lahore:•
 Publishers United, 1978.
7. Brown, W. Norman. The United States and India, Pakistan,
 Bangladesh, Cambridge, Mass; Harvard
 University Press, 1972.
8. Chand, Tara Society and State in the Mughal Period,
 Lahore: Book Traders, 1979.
9. Conpland, Reginald, The Indian Problem, 1833-1935, London:
 Oxford University Press,1968.
10. Dani, A.H., "Iqbal's views on Nation and Millat" Journal
 of' Pakistan Studies, Vol. I (1980).
11. De Bary, Theodore ed. Sources of Indian Tradition, New York:
 Columbia University, 1958.
12. Fathepuri, Farman, ed., The Present State of Indian Politics,
 Lahore: Sang-e-Meel Publications, 1982.

13. Hamid, Abdul Muslim Separatism in India, Lahore: Oxford
 University Press, 1971.
14. Hayat, Sikandar "Hindu-Muslim Separatism in India: A
 Survey of the Muslim Rule, Pakistan Journal
 of History and Culture, Vol. V. No. 2,
 July-December, 1984.
"Syed Ahmad Khan and the Foundation of
Muslim Separatist Political Movement in
India". Pakistan Journal of Social Science
Vol. VIII, NO. 1 &I12 (Jan-July-December
"Allama Iqbal Muhammad Jqbal and the
Idia". Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences,
Vol. IX, No. 1 & 2 Jan-July-December,
15. Ikram, S.M. Modern Muslim India and the Birth of
Pakistan, Lahore: Institute of Islamic
Culture, 1977.
16. Iqbal, Javed "The legacy of Quaid-i-Azam", in A.H.
Dani, ed., Quaid-i - A z am and Pakistan.
Islamabad: Quaid-i-Azam University, 1981.

17. Iqbal, Allama Muhammad The Reconstruction of Religious Thought
in Islam, Lahore, Sh. Muhammad Ashraf,
18. Dr. Mrs. Khan Saleem "Qu aid -i- A z am's Pakistan: Ideology,
structure and working". in A.H.Dani,ed.,
Quaid-i-Azam and Pakistan.
19. Malik, Hafeez, Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan and Muslim
Modernization in India and Pakistan,
New York: Clumbia University, 1980.
Political Profile of Sir Say yid Ahmad
Khan, Islamabad: Institute of Islarrdo
History, Culture and Civilization, 1982.
20. Mujahid, Sharif al., Quaid-i-Azam innah: Studies in Inter-
pretation, K arachi: Quaid -i - Ac ademy,
Nov., 1981.

"Muslim Nationalism: Iqbal's Synthesis
of Pan-Islamism and Nationalism":
 Journal of Pakistan Studies, Vol. 1
21. Nizami, Khaliq Ahmad "Shah Wall-Allah", in History of Free-
dom Movement, Karachi Pakistan Histo—
rical Society, 1957 Vol. I Part-II.
22. Pirzada, Syed Sharifuddin Quaid-i-Azam Jinnah's Correspondence,
ed., Karachi: East and West Publishing Co.,
23. Page, David., "The Development of' Mr. Jinnah's Con-
 stitutional Ideas" in /.H. Bard ed., Wor
 id Scholars on Quaid-i-Azam Muham-
 mad All Jinnah, Islamabad: Quaid-i-Azam
 University, 1979.
 24. Qureshi, Ishtiaq Hussain., Ulama in Politics, Karachi; Ma'aref,
25. Qu. eshi, Salaam M., "Muhammad All Jinnah: Concept of Self-
 Determination", Scrutiny, Vol. 5 No. 4
 and 5 (1979).
26. Saiyid, N.H., Mohammad Ali .Innah: A Political Study,
 Karachi: Elite Publishers 1970, Reprint
 College Edition.
27. Sarwar, Mohammad ed., Armaghan-e-Shah Wall Allah, Lahore:
 Adar-e-Saqafat-e-Islamia, 1971. ,
28. Said, Hakim .Muhammad, "Quaid-i-Azam and National Identity",
 in A.H. Dani. ed.. Quaid-i-Azam and
29. Sharma Sri Ram Pakistan.
 The Religious Policy of the Mughal
 Emperors, London : Asia Publishing
 House, 1962.
30. Spear, Percival. India, Pakistan and the West, New York
 Oxford University Press, 1967.
31. Dani H.A. ed., • World Scholars on Quaid-i-Azam
 Mohammad Ali annah, Islamabad: 1979.
32. Tariq, A.R. Comp. Speeches and Statements of' Iqbal, Laho
 re: Sh. Ghulam Ali & sons, 1973.

33' Zaman,Waheed uz., Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad All ainnah:
Myth and Reality, Islamabad: National
Committee for Birth Centenary Celebe-
rations of Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad All
ainnah, 1976.
 Towards Pakistan, Lahore: Publishers
United, 1978.
"Quaid-i-Azam's Vision of Pakistan" in
AM.Dani, ed., Ouaid-i-Azem and

4.1 The purpose of this course is to evaluate and assess the role
played by Shah Wali-Allah, Syed Ahmed Khan, Allama Mohammad Waal,
and Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad All Jinnah in furnishing the Ideological
content of a separate Muslim State of Pakistan for whose realization
Muslims of tte Indian sub-continent were prepared to live. even to die,
until it was wrested from the hands of the British and theHlhdus, the
majority community of India. Although the Mttslims had-shared the'same
territory with Hindus and other commYrrities, they were •eisentially,a
different community politically, culturally, socially, economically indeed
in all aspect of life. Notwithstanding the pragmatic policies of MusliM•
rulers, particularly the Moghals, and keen efforts made by some of the
most prominent sufis like Nizamud-Din Auliay (1238-1328), the attitude
of the Hindu community discouraged unclerstancting and cooperation and
left them with little choice but to seek a separate destiny for,
themselves. Nothing could describe it better than the very first sign
of decline in Muslim power and the emergence of Shah- Wall-Allah on
the political scene.
4.2 Shah Wali-Allah (1703-1762) a religious divine of Delhi. not only
 propounded a philosophy of "an independent Muslim State", but in a
 desperate bid to creat such a state in India. in fact did not?, hesitate.
 to invite Ahmed Shah Abdali (17.22-1773), the ruler of Afghanistan, to
 fight the non-Muslims. Abdali defeated the Marhatta-Jat forces at
Panipat in 1761. But the Muslims had lost the physical strength to
 . defend Islam in India. Their plight was too severe to be arrested at
this point. The advent of the British in the Indian sub-continent
further aggravated the elemental clash between the Muslims and the
Hindus. It was left to Syed Ahmad Khan (1817-98) to enter the
political arena to help devise a strategy for survival in the changed
4.3 In his efforts to help the Muslims in meeting the challenge ot tne
British rule and in responding to Hindu aspirations in a system of
government inherently biased toward the med'ority. community,. Syed
Ahmad Khan went on to lay the foundation of a Muslim separatist
political movement. It was a foundation on which Allama NMI! and
Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad All Jinnah would subsequently build the ediffce'
of Muslim nationalism and transform the separatist movement into a
separate sovereign state of Pakistan. The main plank of the separatist
movement rested on an awareness that representative institutions in

.ridia were designed to contribute to the permanent subjugation of
Muslim community to Hindu majority. Election's under the system were
merely the means of securing the representation of the Hindu majority
c^-.-,rtity. The political interests of the Muslims were not the same as
•those of the Hindus. Muslims and Hindus were separate groups. Islam was
the basis of the Muslim- concept of -group. Muslims 'could -not expect the
other group, Hindus, to advance their interests in political life. These
fear and aspirations became even more pronounced as the end of the
• British rule in india came in sight. But then, fortunately for the
Allam8 Rib& and Quaid-i-Azam .Jinnah Were •present on the
scene to show them the .vitay -and to lead them quite realisitically into
the 'promised land!
4.4 Allama Mohammad lqbal .I18774938) . called for the "redistribution"
cf. +6" Indian sub*contieent -.stressing that 'Muslims • were "the • only
Indian people who can -fitly "be-.-,described • as a nation' in the modern
sense of the word". .kithoggh -Hindusohe•-felt, ,were .ahead of' `Muslims in
all respects, they • had • "not -yet !)been able - to achieve the kind . of
.homogenity which -is necessary' forqoation", iand which Islam . had given
to the Muslims as . a '"free" Oft. "The life -of is-lam .as the cultural
force" in .India, he indeed I suggested, "very largely .depends on its.
centralization in a specified . territory".. Allama Iqbal thus -went on to
make . a clear distin.ction-.between ,a,'concept of nationalism -necessitated
.. by the peculiar .conditionsriof. india..and subjected to the will of Islam
and the all pervasive concept • :of -.nationalism in vogue in. Europe at
that time. Allama iqbal!s Idemand for a -,separate ',Muslim- state • was not
simply to secure a national, territorial,homeland for the -Muslims of .the
Indian sub-continent, but, more importantly, to serve .as a means to
higher and nobler end, in the best interests of Islam. And no body
could have known .iLhetter- than Quaid-i-Azam-Mohammad All Jinnah - who
 had remained in constant...touch with for most .part .of his..political
 career, and had i-exchanged lengthy ',letters with .him . in 1936-37
 regarding the fate of the Indian Muslims.
.4.5 Quaid-i-Azani Mohammad All .Jinnah (1876-1948) announced on
March 22, 1940 formally..and• forcefully 'the -Muslim claim for nationhood
and a separate . state in ,-his ..,peesidential address at Lahore session of
the League, attended •! by nearly :IMMO --Muslim from all parts and
provinces of India, the 3argest.Musilim --gathering come together so for.
On. March 23, . the meeting, passed a-resal.ution to that •effect. On-' March
24, it was adopted as. the, now: famous Lahore (Pakistan) .Resolution. The
main thrust of Quaid44zam!s 'argument ,was. • that the Muslims ,ano
Hindus, -notwithstanding . thousand -years of contact were "nationalities
• which are as. divergent •today .as,..ever " They could net at any time
"be expected to. transform thetaselves into one nation merely by means
of subjecting • them to.. a democratic constitution and holding them
forcibly together by unnatural and artificial. methods of • British

parliamentary stature". Muslims, he insisted were e "nation" by
themselves and had, like all other free nations, the right to develop to
the fullest their "spiritual, cultural, economic, social and political life
in a way that we think best .and in consonance with our own ideal and
according to the genius of our people". The trouble with Hindus,
luaid-i-Azam lamented, was that they failed to understand "the real
• nature of Islam and Hinduism". Highlighting the divergent and
conflicting nature of the two religious and their attendant social orders
and historical paradoxes as they affected politic& behaviour, he went
on to stress:
The Hindus and Muslims belorig to two different religious philoso-
phies, social customs, literatures. They neither intermarry nor
interdine together and, indeed, they belong to two different
civilizations which are based mainly on conflicting ideas and
conceptions. Their aspects on life and of life are different. It is
quite clear that Hindus and Muialmans derive their inspiration from
different sources of history. They have different epics, different
heroes and different episodes. Very often the hero of one is a
foe of the other and, likewise, their victories and defeats
overlap. To yoke together two such nations under a single state,
one as a numerical minority and the other as a majority, must
lead to growing discontent and final destruction of any fabric
that may be so built up for the government of such a state.
4.6 Indian Muslims were readily moved. The idea of a separate Muslim
state galvanised each and every segment 0 the society and brought to
the fore genuine mass sentiments and aspirations. Not only they saw
it as a means to secure political survival of their community in a state
where they would be a great majority but also as an appeal to work
for the regeneration of Islam in the Indian sub-continent. The idea
indeed came to offer them the only form in which freedom of India for
them had any meaning, and soon became the symbol of their nationalism
and their ultimate qoal-Pakistar.
Quaid-i-Azam Jinnah's long and strenuous efforts to organize the
Indian Muslims behind the demand for Pakistan finally bore fruit on
August 14, 1947, when new nation-state of Pakistan appeared on the
map of the world. The idea of Muslim nation expressed in the thoughts
of Shah Wali-Allah, Syed Ahmad Khan, Allama Mohammad Iqbal, and
Quaid-i-Azari Mohammad All Jinnah was transformed into a reality.
Indian Muslims proved them right: "The Muslims are a nation".


In the first DItick our effort will be to study the historical
context of Shah Wall Allah's emergence on the political scene of
India. Muslims and Hindus, in spite of close contact for centuries, -
remained essentially two separate communities. Muslim rulers,
particularly the Moghuis, did their utmost to win the support of
their Hindu subjects in the common cause of India, but to no
avail. Hindu masses, by and large, remained indifferent, indeed
hostile, whenever they could detect signs of the weakening of
Muslim hold. This was amity demonstrated, in the later part of
Aurangzeb's reign, though it developed into a more pronounced
"religious War, centred round the priantom of the blOghul empire"
only after his death in 1707. The Hindus never rearrly gave up on
their cherished ideal of resurrecting Hindu Dad oadshehf..
What complicated the Hindu-Muslim relations further in the given
period was the Hindu social structure, founded on the caste
system. The caste system precluded any meaningful relationship
with the Muslims, the so-called "Maleeeha".
To understand this prespective, we shall concentrate our attention
upon two aspects of the problem. One the role of Muslim rulers in
fostering Hindu-Muslims relations. And two, Hindu communalism,
reflected edpecially in the given Hindu social order
(i) To focus on the historical setting of India on the eve of
Shah Waii-Allah's emergence.
(ii) To concentrate on the social aspect of Hindu-Muslim relations.
5.3.1 Required Readimers
1. Percival Spear,indie, Pakistan pnr1 the West,PP.

2. .Sikandar Hayat,"HindU-MUslim separatism in India: A
survey of the Muslin Rule". pp. 55-68.
1. Tara Chand, Society and State in the MUghal period.
pp. 57-72.
2. Sri Ram ShaHma, The RaclinUs Policy of the hfughaa
 Emperons, pp, 176-86.
5.3.1 Self-Learning Questions
1 O.No.l. How would you evaluate the history of Muslim rule in
India? How far do you think the Muslim rulers tried to.
develop harmony and understanding with their Hindu
subjects? Discuss in the light of the reading material.
Points to note:
I. The attitude of Muslim rulers (and the Sufis).
ii. The force of Hindu resistance.
iii. Separate traditions.
Q.No.2. Discuss the contribution of the Muslim rulers to the
develoment of society and State in India? Critically
examine Tara Chand's analysis.
Points to note:.
i. The tolerant nature of the Mughal State.
ii. Contributions to Indian culture, literature, and
Tht patronising role oi the Mughal rulers.
Q.No.3. What do you understand of the religious policy of the
Mughals? How far would You agree with Sharma that
the Mughals generally left the religious beliefs of
their subjects a1one2
Potnts to note:
i. Not a "theocratic" State.

No interference in the personal laws and beliefs of the
ill. Plenty of choice for citizens in State activities in
theory as well as in practice,
5.4.1 Required Readings
1. Percival spear India Pakistan, and the, West,pp.
33-45 and 46-56.
2. W. Norm an Brown, The United States and India,
Pakistan, Bangladesh, pp. 32-35.
3. Perciral Spear, India, Pakistan, and the West, pp.
5.4.2 Self-Learning Questions,
Q.No.l. Examine the role of caste in Hinduism. Do you think it
was possible for the Hindus to outgrow their caste
Points to note
i. Caste is a basic Hindu institution..
ii. Caste commands and forbids what a Hindu shall do ol rt
iii. Caste is integral to Hindu socio-religious system.
O No.2 How far do you think Hinduism as a body of customs
and a body of ideas allows for contact with members
of other faiths?
Points to note
i. Hindus suffer from certain inhibitions and "prejudices".
Ii. The restrictive side of the caste 'system is fully
reflected in relationship with members of other faiths.
III. The ideas - which underly the Hindu social system are -
even more important than the system itself.

Q.No.3. How far Muslim community is different in texture and
outlook from the Hindu community. Discuss in the light
of Percival Spear's observations.
Points to note
I. They differ from Hindus in belief, culture, traditions,
and in their sense of values.
ii. Muslims reject polytheism and, idolatry.
iii. As opposed to the caste among the Hindus the MuslI ns
have a strong sense of equality.


In this block we shall analyze the philosophy of Shah Wali-Allah
eSpecially as it was related to Indian political life. In Shah Wall-
Allah's estimate, religion and politics were not separable. Islam
was a way of life, a code of conduct, spiritual as well as
temporal. We shall therefore focus on Shah Wall-Allah's response
to the Indian Political situation in the context of his belief in
the inevitable resurrection of Muslim power in India for the sake
of Islam. Shah Wall-Allah planned a two pronged strategy. In the
short run, Shah Wali-Allah decided to invite Ahmad Shah Abdali,
the ruler of Afghanistan, to come to India and to rescue the
Indian Muslims from the Hindu onslaught. He assured him that the
Hindus were not as formidable as they looked outwardly. The
defeat of the Marhatta-Jat forces at Panipat in 1761 proved his
point. But while he had the satisfaction of seeing the Hindu
power broken in his lifetime, the resurrection of Muslim dominance
in India did not follow Ahmad Shah Abdali did not interest himself
in building a Muslim Empire in India anew. In the 'long run, Shah
Wall Allah aimed to unite the Muslims by instilling into them a
spirit of cooperation, and common effort. Muslim society had to be
cured of disunity and strife. Holding sectarianism to be the
biggest cause of strife, Shah Wall-Allah tried his utmost to
remove misunderstandings among the sects and sub-sects of Islam
in India. He also addressed himself to social and economic factors
that were creating disunity in Muslim society, setting one class or
group against another. In addition Shah Wali-Allah exhorted the
Indian Muslims not to give up any part of their culture and
identity. They Must preserve their religious beliefs and traditions.
They must not compromise on the ideological entity of their
community. This was indeed Shah Wali-Allah's lasting contribution
to Indian Muslim political life.
1. To identify the qa1fPnt feature of Shah WaLf-Allah's
2. To assess and evaluate Shah WaLi-Allah's contrIbution to
Indian Muslim politics and Society.

6.3.1 Required Readings
 1. I.H. Qureshi, Ulema in Politics, pp. 99-126.
2. Khaliq Ahmad Nizami, "Shah Wall Allah", pp. 512-
1. Mohammad Sarwar, ed., Armaghan-e-Shan Wall-
Allah, pp. 342-55.:
6.3.2 Self-Learning Questions
Q.No.1. Analyse the contribution of Shah Wall-Allah to
the revival of Muslim fortunes in India.
Points to Note
1. The criticl situation of India on the eve of Shah
Wall-Allah's emergence. The weakness of the Mughal
Empire and the rapid decline in its authority.
Shah Wall-Allah's efforts to redeem the Muslim
society from error and suicidal tendencies.
ill. Efforts through political and military actions.
Invitation to Ahmad Shah Abdali to come to India
to meet the Hindu challenge.
Q.No.2 Disccus the political philosophy of Shah Wall-Allah
emphasizing in particular .his ideas relating to the
religious beliefs and the ideological unity of the
Indian Muslims.
Point to note
i, Shah Wall-Allah's appeal for unity among different
sects and sub-sects of Islam.
ii. Shah Wali-Allah's faith in the unity of the Muslim

Shah Wali-Allah's stress on the ideological entity of
the Muslim community. Muslims are a separate
Q.No.3 How far do you think Shah Wall-Allah succeeded in
convincing the Indian Muslims of the need for a
unity of thought and action in India?
Points to note
i Efforts to remove the causes of doctrinal differen-
ces among the Muslims.
• ii. Inculcating a deeper and more sincere loyalty to
the teachings of Islam?
iii. Persuading the Muslims to think an act like one
people, one community.


 In this block we shall explore Syed ,nmed Khan's views on
 the British rule in India. Firstly, we shall examine his
attitude towards the British as far as it concerned the
Muslims. We shall ty to identify in particular his reasons
for cooperation with the British. Syed Ahmed Khan was
convinced that the muslims had no choice but to cooperate
with the British if they did not wish to be left out in the
race for government services and professions. Muslim
revival, in fact, Syed Ahmed Khan felt, was inexorably tied
to the Muslim cooperation with the British. The lives and
properties of the Muslims were safe under the British and
no restrictions were placed on their religious practices.
Jihad was incumbent on the Muslims only if they were
denied peace and could not practice their religion without
fear of persecution. Since none of these conditions
prevailed in India, Syed Ahmed Khan stressed, it was
obligatory for the Muslims to be 'loyal' to the British
rulers. In fact,, with the ultimate failure of the Uprising of
1857 and the reprisals that followed there was no other
way to recover except by cooperating with the British.
Secondly, we shall try to understand Ahmed Khan's concern
with Western education, especially in the context of the
Indian Muslim strategy for revival and progress in the
new set of , circumstances in India. Syed Ahmed Khan
saw very early the danger to the Muslims if they did not
take to the new system of education introduced by the
British. The countries of Europe had developed economically
and politically as a result of acceptance of science and
new techniques of learning. iiindus had already taken
advantage of the Western education. Syed Ahmad Khan
therefore insisted that the Musims must not lag behind. In
emphasizing the need for western education, Syed Ahmed
Khan was by no means suggesting that Muslims should ignore
their traditional curricula. What he tried to stress was that
Muslims should acquire Western education in addition to
traditional learning. The connection between education and
government was too obvious for Syed Ahmed Khan to ignore.

 To evaluate the role of Syed Ahmad Khan in helping the
 Muslims adjust to the realities of the British rule.
7.3.1 Required Readings:
1. Hafeez Malik, Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan and
Muslim modernization in India and Pakistan,
pp. 103-23.
2. Abdul Hamid, Muslim • Separatism in India,
pp. 7-11, 20-21.
1. Hafeez Malik, ed., Political Profile of Sir
Sayyid Ahmed Khan, pp. 308-10.
7 3.2 Self-Learning Questions,
Q.No.1 Why do you think Syed Ahmed Khan was
interested in reconciling the Muslims to the
British rule? Discuss in the light of the
reading material.
Points to note
i. The Muslims were the arch rebels in the eyes
of the British.
Syed Ahmed .Khan was convinced that the
British had come to stay in India.

iii. Advantages that Syed Ahmed Khan thought
would accrue to the Muplims if they
reconciled themselves to the British rule.
Q.No.2 What kind of arguments' did Syed Ahmed Khan
advanced to bring about a reprochrnent
between the Christian British rulers and their
Muslim subjects? .

Points to note
1. Both Muslims and Christians were followers of
revealed religious, unlike the Hindus.
ii. Given the freedom of religious practice in
India, Jihad was not incumbent on the Muslims.
iii. Muslims were generally "loyal" subjectc of
British India.
Q.No.3 Discuss the impact of Revolt in Bijnor on the
development of Syed Ahmed Khan's concept of
Muslim "nationhood". Analyse the statement in
the light of Hafiz Malik's copments.
Points to note
i. The growth of Hindu-Muslim confrontation.,
The clash of economic interests between the
Muslims and the Hindus.
iii. The Hindus and Muslims were incapable
developing a political Modus Vivendi.
7.4.1 Required- Readings-
1. Abdul Hamid, Muslim separatism, pp. 11-19.
2. . Hafeet Malik, Sir Sayyld Ahmed Khan and
Muslim Modernization in India and Pakistan,
pp. 125-40.

1. Theodore de Bary, ed., Sources or Indian Tra-
dition, pp. 744-46.

7.4.2 Self-Learning Questions
Q.No.1 Make a critical appraisal of Syed Ah7ed
.1. Khan's contribution in spreac:ing of Western
education among the Muslim.
Points. to note
i. Western education was the need of the time.
Foundation of the Muhammadan Anglo-oriential
College (M.A.O. College,.
iii. Western education system neeriPd readjust-
ment s to cater for the special needs of tr,.
Muslim community.
Q.No. 2 Why did Syed Ahmed • han regard the
acquisition of Western ed ;Hon, so crucial
for Muslim revival in India
Points to note
I. Not satisfied with the pri,ralent system r):
Muslim education.
ii. Western education was essentially linked to
government service.
,The only way Muslims could catch Jp with the
Hindus and could therefore secure their sper 1,11
interests vis-a-vis the Hindus..
Q.No.3 Examine Syed Ahmed Khan's evaluation of
Muslim response to Western education.
Points to note
i. Not satisfied with the findings of the
committee for ttie .Better Diffusion and
Not satisfied with the findings of the coinmit-
tee for the Better Diffusion and Advancement
of learning among Muhammadans of :ndia.
i. Not happy with the fact that the population
of Muslim students rec&ving education in

government schools and colleges was much less
than what was warranted by their population
iii. The absence of religious education in schools
was just one of the reasons that kept the
Muslims away from government schoOls.


8.1 This block will focus on Syed Ahmed Khan's contribution in
laying the foundation of a Muslim separatist political
movement in India. The first section will concentrate upon
his efforts to oppose the introduction of British system of
representative government in India, based upon the
principles of majority rule thereby rendering Muslims a
"minority" in the system. There was no way the Muslims
could improve their position. It was certain that Hindus
would obtain four times as many votes as Muslims because
their population was four times as large. Even if the elec-
torate was limited through a method of qualification like
income, Syed Ahmed Khan reckoned., Muslims had no chance.
"Suppose, for example, that an income of Rs. 5.000 a year
be • fixed on", Syed Ahmed Khan wondered, "how many
Mohammedans will there be? Which party will have the
larger number of. votes? In the normal case no single
Mohammedan will secure seat in the Viceroy's Council".
In the second sction, Syed Ahmed Khan's views on the goals '
of the Indian National Congress, founded in 1885, ostensibly
to promote the cause of one "Indian Nation" shall be
considered. Syed Ahmed Khan opposed the Indian National
Congress. He did not consider it good for the Muslims. He
knew that as compared with Hindus, the Muslims were
numerically much smaller, educationally backward, and
economically weak. He needed the support of the British to
help recover the Muslims from the terrible situation they
were confronted with in the 'wake Of the dismal failure of
the uprising of 1857. He did not want to. do anything with
politics, reastof all politics of the Indian National Congress
which he considered the politics of the Hindus. He was
opposed in particular to the Congress demands for the
holding of competitive examinations ar the extension of
representative institutions in India. He ws convinced that
the acceptance of these demands would result in the
domination of Hindus over the Muslims.

LasUy. an attempt will be made to assess the growth o'
musli'm "group consciousness" as a dist'rct tendency in
Indian politic. For it was now that the vus'ims fe7t,
clearly and perceptibly, that they were separate from the
Hindus, that their interests were separate from those of
the Hindus, and that their interests could be secured and
promoted only through a separate group life and activity.
I. To understand the contribution of Syed Ahmed Khan
towards the growth of separate Muslim group life and
2. To understand the relationship between British system
of government and the 'way it safeguarded the
interests of majority and minority communities -of India.
8.3.1 Required Readings
1. M. Yusuf Abbasi, -"Sir Syed Ahmed Khan
and the Reawakening of the Muslims",
pp. 19-25.
 2. Farman Fathepuri, ed., The present State
 of Indian Politics, pp. 36-38, 64.
8.3.2 Self-Learning Questions
Q.No.1 Why did Syed Ahmed Khan oppose the
introduction of the British system of
representative government in India?
Points to note
I. British system of representative
government in India rested on the majority

ii. The system had inherent bias toward the
"majority" community.
iii. Given the inexorable logic of the majority
rule, the Muslims could never over-come
their "minority" status.
Q.No. 2 How did the British system of representative
government convert the Muslims into a
"minority"? Discuss with reference to the
principles of.democracy on the Western lines.
Points to note
i. The system was based on num!
Muslims did not comprise the m Ity of the Indian
population. Hindus comprised majority of the
iii. The very fact that the Muslims were numerically
smaller than the Hindus, the majorIty community, made
them a •'minority".
Q.No.3 Do you think that the working of the
representative system of Govt. contributed to
the growth of Muslim sense of identity.
Points to note
i. The system of government was inherently opposed to
Muslim interests.
ii The Muslim could not improve upon their minority
status in the given system.
iii. The Muslims were left with no choice but to look out
for ways and means to protect and secure their
special interests and claims. -

3.4.1 Required Readings
1. S. M. Ikram Modern Muslim India and the Bath of
Pakistan, pp. 40-4'9.
2. Hafeez Malik, Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan and Muslim
Modernization in India and Pakistan, pp. 248-53.
1. M. Yusuf M asi, "Sir Syed hmad Khan and the
Reawakening of the MIA1fms", pp. 25-31.
8.4.2 Self-Learning Questions
Q.No. 1 Diuscuss Syed Ahmed Khan's attitude towards the
Indian National Congress? Why did not he
consider it as a "National" body.
Points to note
i. Opposed the rise and role of Indian National
ii. Considered India to be inhabited by different
nationalities, not one.
iii. Interests and demands of the Muslims were different
from those of the Hindus.
Q.No.2 Why did Syed Ahmed Khan consider .the Congress
demands inimical to Muslim interest?
Points to note
i. Extension of representative principle in India amoUn-
ted to more power to Hindu majority community.
Holding of competitive examination for civil services
meant more jobs for the Hindus.
iii. Political_ confrontation with the government was not

suited to Muslim interests.
Q.No.3 How far do you think the turn of events proved
Syed Ahmed Khan's criticism of the Congress
Points to note
i. Incidence of Hindu-Muslim riots.
Increasingly Hinduized outlook of the Congress.
iii. Failure of the Congress to recognize and accommmo-
date Muslim interests.
8.5.1 Required Readings
1. Hafeez Malik, Sir Sayy.id Ahmad Khan and Muslim
 Modernization dn India and Pakistan, 230-53.
2. Sikandar Hayat, "Syed Ahmed Khan and the
 foundation of Muslim Separatist Political Movement -in
India". pp. 33-47.
1. Farman Fathepuri, ed., The Present. State of Indian
Politics, pp. "93-95.
8.5.2 Self-Learning Questions
Q. No. 1 Evaluate the contribution nof Syed Ahmed Khan
in the growth of Muslim "group consciousness".
Points to. note
i. Efforts to promote special Muslim interests.
Rejection of the .congress faith in one nation in

Insistance that the first loyalty of the Muslims is to
Islam, and Islam alone bestows upon them the •
membership of the Muslim nation.
Q.No.2 How far do you think this growth bf "group
consciousness" was due to the inadequency of
the British system of representative government
in India and the attitude of the Hindus in
general and of the leadership of the Indian
N ation al Congress in particular?
Points ,to note
i. British system of representative government made the
Muslims a "minority" community, a permanent one at
ii. Hindus were not responsive to Muslims interests and
•iii. Demands of the Indian National Congress were geared
to Hindu majority community interests rather than
those of the Muslims.
Q.No.3 How far would you be willing to accept it as a
. case of Muslim "nationalism" rather than of
"group consciousness"? Discuss in the light of
the reading material.
Points to note
According to Hafeez Malik, Syed Ahmed Khan's
concept of nationalism was based on instincts rather
than on acquired characteristics.
Or, you feel that Muslim identity at that time could
more appropriately be described as a manifestation of
"group consciusness"? Muslim nationalism was to
develop later at the hands of Allama Iqbal and
Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah?
Syed Ahmed Khan's views pn Indian nationalism,
especially in the context of his opposition to the
Congress demands.


In this block we. shall study Allama Muhammad Iqbal's views on
"Indian Nationalism". To begin with Allama Iqbal, like many of his
contemporaries, was a fervent "nationalist". The collections of his
earlier poems like Bang-e-Dara clearly reflect his nationalist
thought. He saw India ,,as the territorial homeland of the Indian
nation. But soon he changed his mind. The European experience
and maturity of 'ideas showed to him the harsh realities of the
nationalist belied . He found out that nationalism, as in vogue in
Europe, was essentially a materialistic creed, devoid of any
spiritual or 't;ethical content. Back in India Allama Iqbal was
further disappointed with the attitude of the Hindu majority
community, "theoretically correct if we start from Western
premises, belied by fact, if we look to India". He was convinced
that there was no room for "free self-development" of the
Muslims, "the communal group which is the source of my life and
behaviour and which has formed me what 1 am by giving me its
religion, its literature, its thought, its culture, and thereby
recreating its whole past as a living operating factor, in my
present consciousness".
Allama Iqbal thus did not hesitate to reject Indian nationalism.
But it was not out of malice. or hatred for the Hindu community.
The principle that various communities were entitle,d to free
development on their own lines was not inspired "by any feeling
of narrow communalism". In rejecting Indian nationalism Allama
Iqbal also aimed to provide the other community, Hindus, an equal
opportunity of "full and free development" of its culture and
traditions. "A community which is inspired by feelings of
towards other communities is low and ignoble. I entertain the
highest respect for the customs, laws, religions and social
institutions of other communities". Iqbal merely wanted the Muslims
their lives in their own way, and in the light of their own faith,
traditions and culture.

In the first part of the block, we shall examine Allama Iqbal's
views on nationalism ,perse. In the second part, we shall
concentrate our attention upon his estimate of Indian nationalism.
To evaluate Allama Iqbal's views on, Indian nationalism before
proceeding with his concept of "Muslim nationalism" and the idea
of a separate Muslim State.
9.3.1 Required Reading
1. Rerveen Shaukat All, The Political Philosophy of.
Iqbal, pp. 182-208.
2. Rizwan-ul-Islam, "Iqbal's Concept of' Muslim Natio-
nalism (Mille)", pp. 106.-25.
1. A.R. Tariq, comp; Speeches and Statements of Iqbal;
pp. 3-6.
9.3.2 Self-Learning Questions
Discuss Allama. Iqbal's views on nationalism i—n1
the light of European thought and experience.
Points to note
1. Iqbal's criticism of nationalism on moral, spiritual and
political grounds.
ii. The materialistic overtones lqf European nationalism.
iii. The separation of Church and State in European
natinalist thought.
Q.No.2 Why did Allama Iqbal cdnsider European
nationalism not relevant and suited to the case
of Islam? What meaning did Allama Iqbal
attributed to the concept of nationalism in the
Islamic context?
Discuss with reference to the reading material.

Points to note
i. The extra-territocial, supra-national Loaracter of
Muslim Millat.
No dualism of Church and State in Islam.
iii. Nationalism in Islam was not vested in the ethnic or
geographical unity, nor in the unity of language or
social tradition, but in the unity of the religious
and the political ideal.
Q.No. 3 Evaluate Allama lqbal's concept of Muslim 1
Paint to note,
L. Muslim nationalism was rested in the unity of
Church and State, matter and spirit, ethics and
it. Muslims all over the world were part of an Islamic
iii. A means to preserve Muslim cultural identity; their
faith, cutlrue and historical tradition.
9.4.1 Required Readings
I. S.M. Ikram, Modern Muslim India and the Birth of
Pakistan, pp. 166-75.
2. Perveen Shaukat All, The Political Philosophy of
lqbal, pp. 314-25.
1. Ahmad Hasan Dani, "Iqbalts views on Nation and
Millat", pp. 15-35.
9.4.2 Self-Learning Questions
Q.No. 1 How did Allama Iqbal change from an Indian
nationalist to a Muslim Nationalist?

Points*to note
i. European experience.
Spiritual and ideological change.
iii. Influence of •A1-Hilal, Shibli, Akbar of Allsahabad and
S ul em an - N ad vi.
Q.No.2 What Allama Iqbal's estimate of Indian
nationalism? Why did he consider it ill-suited to
the interests of Muslims in India?
Points to note
i. Indian nationalism biased toward the Hindu majority
Hindu majority community not prepared to safeguard
and promote Muslim interests at .the risk of complete
extinction as a community determined to live its own
iii. Muslims could forego these safeguards.
Q.No.3 What role did Allama Iqbal's political experience
of working with the Hindu majority community
play in rejecting the Indian nationalist creed?
point to note
i. Desappointment with the Nehru Report.
In different attitude of the congress leadership at
the Round Table Conferences, London.
iii. Hesitancy of the Hindu majority community to settle
the communal problem.


The basic purpose of this block is to follow Allama Igbalts
intellectual formulation f the idea of a separate Muslim state.
After having rejected the concept of nationalism as it developed
in the West and as it was being applied to the case of India by
the Hindu majority community, Allama Iqbal proceeded to offer
the Indian Muslims. a viable alternative in the form of Muslim '
nationalism, emphasizing the unity of religion and state in Islam.
The idea was to secure the integral relationship between Islam
and its social structure. Islam is "not prepared to compromise
With any other law regulating human society". Islam does not
confine itself only to the religious aspects of life. It is a
religious, political, social arid economic system and none of these
aspects can be separated. "In Islam", Allama Iqbal pointed out,
"the spiritual and, the temporal are not two distinct domains... In
Islam it is the same reality which appears as Church looked at
from one point of view and state from another... Islam is a single
unanalysable reality which is one or the other as your point of
varies". Islam united religion and state, matter and spirt, ethics
and politics.
It cannot be denied, thus, Iqbal declared at the Allahabad sesion
of the All-India Muslim League in 1930, that Islam "an ethical
ideal plus some kind of polity by which expression I mean a social
structure reoulated by a legal system and animated by a specific
ethtcal ideal-- has been the chief formative factor in the
life-history of the Muslims of India... Indeed it is no exaggeration'
to say that India is perhaps the only country in the world where
Islam, as a people binding force, has worked at its best". Itwas
therefore, necessary, he argued, that Muslims of India must found
a separate Muslim state in order to live their lives in accordance
with their faith, and their way of life.
To understand Allama Igbal's contribution in the formulation of
the idea of a separate Muslim state.

10.3.1 Required Readings
1. Waheed-uz-Zaman, Towards Pakistan, pp. 123-47.
2. Anwar H. Syed, "Allama lqbal and Quaid-i-Azam on Issues
of Nationhood and Nationalism", pp. 203-12.
3. Sharif al Mujahid, "Muslim Nationalism: lqbal's Synthesis
of pan-Islamism and Nationalism", pp. 37-49.
4. Sikandar Hayat, "Allama Muhammad lqbal and the Idea
of a Separate Muslim State in India", pp. 37-53.
1. A. R. Tariq, comp., Speeches and Statements of Iqbal,
. pp. 7-19.
2. Letters of lqbal to Jinnah, with a preface by M. A. Jinnah,
pp. 743-55.
3. Allama .Muhammad lqbal, Reconstruction of Religious
Thought in Islam, pp. 153-59.
10.3.2 Self-Learning Questions
Q. No. 1 Discuss the intellectual content of Allama lqba.l's
demand for a Separate Muslim State.
Point to note
Islam did not approve the separation of the spiritual from
the 'temporal. Religion was not a private affair with the
ii. It was not possible to retain Islam as an ethical ideal and
• reject it as a polity. The rejection of one would eventually
involve the rejection of the other. Islam was an integrated
"religion-political system".

iii. The life of Islam as a cultural force depended very largely
on its "centralization in a specified temporary".
Q. No. 2 What rationale did Allama iqbal offer for the creation of
separate Muslim State in India? How far did it represent
a case of ideological nationalism than a territorial
nationalism? Discuss in the light of reading material.
Points to note
i. Muslims were a homogeneous community, entitled to full
and free development of their culture and tradition.
A non-Muslim dominated polity could not allow for the
development of Muslim culture and tradition.
iii. In order to secure the integral relationship between Islam
and its social structure, it was necessary that Muslims
must found a separate state.
Q. No. 2 How did Allama lqbal explain the idea of a separate
Muslim state to Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah?
Discuss with reference to letters of lqbal to linnah.
Points to note
I. Cultural problem is of great consequence to the Muslims.
A united Hindu-Muslim nation is'impossible in India. Only
way to a peaceful India is a redistribution of the country
on the lines of social, religious and linguistic affinities.
A separate federation of Muslim provinces is the only
course available to save Muslims from the domination of

iv. The enforcement and develc, 2nt of the Shariat
jof Islam is impossible without a free Muslim
f state.


The purpose of this •unit is to underscore Quaid-i-Azam Jinnah's
views on the emergence of ".Indian nationalism". Quaid-i-Azam
Jinnah in fact shared the prevalent educated, urban middle class
optimism on the subject. ''... is it too much to ask and appeal to
Hindus and Mohammadans, the two great communities in India"
"Jinnah wondered, "to combine in one harmonious union for the
common goal " What Quaid-i-Azam insisted upon however was
that the Muslims had special interests and that there must not be
any conflict between Muslim interests and all-India interests.
Quaid-i-Azam was however convinced that through a process of
accomodation and adjustment of Muslim demands they could be
reconciled to facilitate the task of the attaihment of self-governm
ent for India.
Though the stresses and strains of the twenties and late thirtees,
especially in view of the Congress intransigence and insensitivity
to the Muslim interests, faced him to revise and reformulate his
earlier convinctions from time to time, Quaid-i-Azam, by far and
large, held steadfastly to his essential creed. He wanted
freedom, meaningful freedom for India. He wanted freedom both
for the Hindus and the Muslims. It was only at the end of
negotiations with the congress leadership in January, 1940 that he
had no longer any faith left in the proposition that
silf-government for India and the interests of Muslims in India
were two sides of the same coin. There was no longer any
illusion in his mind as to the 'nationalist' pretensions of the
Congress or the possible fate of the Muslims in their scheme of
Quaid-i-Azam . had also come to doubt the validity of British
parliamentary system of government in India. In 1935, he was
prepared to consider the provincial part of the Act of 1935, for
whatever its worth, but now he condemned it outright for its
failure to safeguard Muslim rights and interests. Parliamentary
system "based on the majority principle", he argued, "must
inveitably mean the rule of the majority nation". Experience has
proved that whatever the economic and political programme of any

political party, "the Hindu as a general rule, will vote for his
caste fellow and the Muslim for his co-religionist". There was no
way tfl Mslim, could have a pi3lpable share of p:iwer in the
systerr. Hindus could scarcely be expected to surrender tiE. richts
their. ;lumbers gave them. British parliamentary system of
government had brought to the fore majority rule, with Hindus
"always in power and the Muslims never".
In the first part of the block we shall address, the British par-
liamentary system of government in India to show its inadequacy
to satisfy Muslim interests. In the second Part we shall discuss'
Hindu-Muslim question, emphasizing in particular the role played by
Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah to unite the two communities in
the common cause of India.
To understand the reasons for Quaid-i-Azam's rejection of "Indian
11.3.1 Required Readings
1. David Page, "The Development of Mr Jinnah's
Constitutional Ideas", p p .271 - 79.
 2. Waheed Ahmad, Road to Indian Freedom, pp.155-212
 3. Reginald coupland, The Indian Problem, pp.28-36
 1. Article on the Constitutional Maladies of India sent
 at special request of Time and Tide, London, on
 January 19,1940, in Jamil-ud-DinAhmad, ed., Speeches
 and Writings of Mr ainnah, Vol:1, pp.122-31
11.3.2 Self -Learning Questions
Q.No.1 Appraise the efforts Quaid-i-Azam made to make
the British parliamentary system of Government
responsive to Muslini needs and interests.

Points to note
1. Insistance on the principle of separate electorates.
Demand for statutory majorities in the Muslim
majority provinces of the P...msjab and Bengal.
iii. Demand for provincial autonomy and genuine
federation at the centre.
Q.No.2 In what ways the system of government was
fundamentally incapable of satisfying Muslim
demands? Discuss.
Points to note
1. Resting on the majority principle, the system of
government was bound to secure the interests of
the Hindu majority.
ii. Hindu domination of the centre was bound to
make the Muslims subservient to Hindu interests.
iii. The system of government was biased inherently
toward the centre
Q.No.3 How do you think the difficulties in the system
were further complicated by the attitude of the
Indian National Congress?
Points tø note
i. Indian National Congress, unmindful of the
peculiar conditions of India, was wedded to the
unitary concept of state.
ii. Unitary bias of the Congress was evident A the
Nehru Report of 1928 and in the proceoLings of
the Round Table Conference.
iii. The Congress refused to -recognize that Muslims
had special interests wilich needed special

11.4 Quaid-i-Azam and the Ninud-Muslim Question
11.4.1 Required Readings -
 Compulsory -
I. Latif Akmad Sherwani, Jinnah end Hindu-41uc1it1i unity"
2. Sharif al Mujahld, Quaid-i-Azam Jinnah: Studies in
Interpretation, pp. 187789, 202-14.
Suggested •
1. Riaz Ahmad, Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad All Jihnah: The
Formative Years,pp.110-31, 42-49.
11.4.2 Self-Learning Questions

Q.No.1 Why did the Quaid-i-Az-am attach so much
importance to the growth of Hindu-Muslim
Points to note
i. To confront the British Government with a united
demand for freedom.
To help evolve a mutually satisfactory
constitution of India.
iii. To help promote the cause of Indian nationalism.
Q.No.2 What were the main obstcles to the grwoth of
Hindu-Muslim relations. How did the
Quaid-i-Azam aim and work to overcome them?
Points to note
i. 1. Hindu reluctance to recognize the communal
nature of the Indian problem. The role of thc
Indian National Congress.
Attitude of the Hindu extremists, particularly the
Quaid-i-Azam Jinnah's ceaseless efforts to move
the Hindus toward an agreed constitutional plan.

Q:N0.3 How did the Hindu attitude bring about a change
in Quaid-i-Azam from being an ambassador of
Hindu-Muslim unity to the fiercest champion of
Muslim nationalism.
Points to note
The role of the Indian National Congress
convinced Quaid-i-Azap that it was a Hindu body
and it could not look after the special interests
of the Muslims.
Congress in particular and Hindu organizations in
general convinced Quaid-i-Azam that there was
no place for the Muslims under the Indian sun.
That Hindu-Muslim unity was a mirage.
v. That Hindus could never agree to reconcile
Muslim interest,:, with .their all-India interests.


12.1 Introduction
The purpose of this unit is to analyze Quaid-i-Azam Jinnah's
demand for Pakistan. Quaid-i-Azam clearly recognized the Muslim
community as his political community and always supported and
furthered its interests. Whether he opposed the. granting of
separate electorate or supported the principle of separate
electorates, whether h e joined or left the t ongress, whether hr,
organized the League in the aid of the Congress or for its own
sake, whether he formulated the Lucknow Pact of 1916, or the
Lucknow Pact of 1937 (between the Muslim groups), or offered the
"Fourteen points", or whether he criticized and castigated the
Congress in* the 1937-40 period, or entered into endless negotia-
tions with its letidership., to settle the Hindu:-Muslin question, the
primary objective was to secure and promote Muslim interests.
Quaid-i-Azam hoped as well as worked to reconcile Muslim
interests with all-India interests. His experience with the Hindus
both within and outside the Indian National Congress. however,
soon convinced him that the two communities suffered 'unriamental
incompatibilities of interests. Muslims had a system ot life -
distinct and separate from other communities. c ilture and
society were organically related with politics in Islam. Allama
lqbal had already emphasize c; this relationship to him in his
famous letters of 1936-37.
Quaid-i-Azam Jinnah thus did not hesitate to declare on March
22,1940 that Muslims are "a nation according to any definition of
a nation", and they twd, like all other free nations,the right to
develop, to the fullest their "spiritual, cultufal, economic, social
and political life in a way that we think best and in consonance
with our own ideal and according to the genuis of our people".
On March 23, a resolution asserting the rioht of the Muslims to
self-determination was proposed, and on March 24,it was adopted
as the now famous Lahore Resolution.
2.2 011jective
The idea is to unclerStand the basis and rationale of the demand
for Pakistan,

1 . Quaid-i-Azam and uslim Nertionalism
12.3.1 Required Readings
1. Waheed-uz-Zaman, Quaid-I.-Aram Muhammad All &nail:
Myth and Reagty, pp.32-42.
2. Saleem M. M. Qureshi, "Mohammed Ali ,Itnnah: conceDt
of Self-determination". pp. 1-15.
3. Manzooruddin Ahnad Zqb& and Jinnah on two-nation,
theory". pp.70-80
1. Ihsanullah Khan Danish, "The Two-Nation Tht,.ory:
From Sir Syeci to .Innahn. pp.272-75
2. Jamil-md-Din Ahmad, Speeches and Writings of Mr
ainnah, Vol:I., pp.16B-71.
12.3.2 Self-Learning Questions
Q.No.1 Why did Quaid-i-Azam demand the division of the
Tnclian Sub-Coinent and the establishment of an
Iiidependent Muslim State?
Discuss with reference to the prescribed reading
Points Zai nott
L The Quaid-i-Azam was -finell;, convinced that
Muslims otjd never protect 3 lid s.icure their
lesitimate interests in un:ted
ii. That the Hindus would never &low them their
due share of power in the Indian. political life.
iii. That the Muslims are a separate community,
indeed a nation, and they must have their own
state to live according to their own way of life.
IQ .No.2 How did Quaid-i-Azam define the -Muslim nation?
In what ways do you think it was in line with
the ideological thought of Syed Ahmed -Khan and
Allama Iqbal? _

Points to note
i. Muslims and Hindus are two distioct and separate
Muslims need to develop to the fullest their
spiritual, cultural, economic, social. and Political
life in a way that they think best and in .
conson..Ince with their own ideals.
iii. Muslims are a nation according to any definition
of the term.
Q.No.3 How wuuld you evaluate the "two nation" theory
expressed in the thoughts Of Quaid-i-Azam.
Points to note
i. Muslims and Hindus are two different nations with
their own distinctive culture, civiliZation, values,
tradition and history.
Ii. Muslims are complete whole religiously, socially,
politically and economically and not a part of
any other entity. In fact, they had a basic
systcra of beliefs—dstinct, separate and apart
from every other community in India. It as not
possible to yoke, Muslims with any other
community under a single state.
iii. Muslims had every right to pur., te their way of
life on neir own', i.e. to seek an independert
state for themselves.
12.4.1 Required Readings
1. W ahe ed -ud-Z-am an:, Towards Pakistan, pp.194 -213.
2. M. H. $aiyid, Mohammad All linnah: Al Politica! Study,i

1. Jamil-ud-Din Ahmad, ed., Speeches and Writings of Mr
annah. Vol:1 pp.151-78 -
2. Syed Sharifyddin Pirzada, ed., Quaid-i-Azam Jinnah
Correspondence, pp. 108-118.
12.4.2 Seff-Learning Quetions
Q.No.1 Discuss the major implications of the Lahore
Points to note
i. No All-India constitutional plan was acceptable
to the Muslims.
II. Partition of India into Muslim majority and
Hindu-majority states.
iii. Adequate and mandatory safeguards for Muslims
in the minority provinces.
iv Assertion of the right of the Muslims to self-
Q.No.2 How far do you think the Resolution offered a
. way out of the difficulties in which the Indian
Muslims found themselves confronted with. Discuss
with reference to the course of events which led
to the demand embodied in the Resolution.
rioints to note
i. Muslims in the Muslim-majority areas to be free
from the imminent 1-1i4Idu rule once lie British
we-e out of India.
The only possible solution of the communal
problem •
iii. Provided the Muslims an opportunity to live their
lives according to their own ideals, religious and

Q.No.3 How did Quaid-i-Azam explain the Lahore .
Resolution. Discuss with reference to the reading
Points to note
i. Muslims of India are a nation.
ii. Constituent units in the two zones -- North-West
and North-East of India will form units of
The word "Pakistan" is synonymous with the
Lahore Resolution.
iv. Lahore Resolution is the only solution of India's
problem on the road to freedom and
 independence of peoples of India. •
v. The adequate, effective and mandatory
safeguards for minorities, referred• to in the
resolution, are a matter of negotiation and
settlement with the minorities in the respective
states, viz., Pakistan and Hindustan.


Quaid-i-Azam Jinnah's demand for Pakistan, as already suggested
in the previous unit, was based on the Muslim right of self-
determnation. The idea was not just to secure a territorial
homeland for the Muslims of India but, more importantly, to
secure and protect their national right. "Can you not appre-
ciate our point of view", Quaid-i-Azam wrote to Mr. Gandhi on
September 21, 1944, "that we claim the right of self-
determination as a nation and not as a territorial unit, and that
we are entitled to exercise our inherent right as a Muslim
nation, which is our birth right? Ours is a case of division and
carving out two independent sovereign states by way of settle-
ment between two major nations. Hindus and Muslims, and not of
severance or secession from any existing union, which is non-set
in India". The Muslims, Quaid-i-Azam insisted, would not accept
an Indian polity in which a permanent Hindu majority -- often
hostile to their ideals, religious and political -- predominated.
Indeed, they wished to develop their spiritual, cultural, economic
and political life according to their own genius and their own
ideals. ''The ideology of the Muslim League", Quaid-i-Azam told
the Madras Session of the League in April, 1941:
is based on the fundamental principle that Muslims of India are
an indpendent nationality and any attempt to get them to merge
their national and political identity will not only be resisted
but, in my opinion, it will be futile for any one to attempt it.
We are determined, and let there be no mistake about it, to
establish the status of independent nation and an independent
state in this sub-continent.
Jinnah's reasons for demanding Pakistan and his
concept of the ideology of Pakistan were substantially the same
as those of Shah Wali Allah, Syed Ahmed Khan and Allama
Mohammad Iqbal. There was first the Muslim community's
historical, traditional reluctance to be ruled by non-Muslims.
Quaid-i-Azam was convinced that the Hindus tried to impose their
ideals on India, disregarded Muslim religious and social life, and
denied their economic and political rights. They did not hesitate

to destroy the Muslim'. community as a distinct. separate entity in
India. This was pot acceptable to the Muslims. As Quaid-i-Azarn
•'told the Frontier Muslim League Conference 'in November, 1945:
. "The ,Muslims demand Pakistan, where they could i-ule according
to their own code of life and according to. their. own cultural
growth, traditions. and Islamic laws". Islam was the basis , and
ultimate inspiration of Muslim nationhood,. and Islam • imposed ' a
"duty" on 'the . Muslims "not to merge his identity . and
individuality in any alien society— Throughout the ages, Hindus
had remained Hindus and Muslims had remained Musli-ms and, they.
had not merged their entities - that was the, basis for. Pakistan".
(Speech at Aligar)-., March 1944.). MUSliM -must have their- own
. government in those area where they constituted majorities to,
live their lives • according to their own 'distinctive outlook on
life and of. life". .
To understand. the ideological thought of ,Quaid-i-Azam Jinnah.
13.3 ideological thought of Quaid-i-Azant
13.3.1 Required Readings
Anwar H.Syed, "Allarna fob& and -QUaid-i-Azam on
'the' issues of nationhood and nationa1ism"ipp.212-20.
Waheeduz-Zaman,"Quaid-i-Azam's Vision of Pakistan",
3. Dr(Mrs) A.Saleem Khan,"Quaid-i-Azam's Pakistan; Ideo-
logy, Structure ,and working", pp. 242-51
1. Hakim Mohammad Said,i'Quaid-i-Azam. and National
Identity"; pp.207-11.
• 2. Javed Iqbal, "The Legacy of Quaid-i-Azam", pp. 216--
• 20. '
13.3,2 Self-Learning Nestle/1s
Q.No.1 Identify" the main features of •Quaicl-i-Aza
Jinnah's ideelogical thought.,

Points to note
i. • Muslims cannot be ruled by non-Muslims:
ii. Muslims of Intia are a nation.
lit. Muslims wish to develop their spiritual, cultural,
economic and political life according to their
own .ideals.
iv. Muslims want to establish an independent state
in the Indian sub-continent.
Q.No.2 Why did Quaid-i-A z am consider the present Indian polity ill-suited to Muslim interests?.
Points to note
1. Hindu majority was often hostile to Muslim •
ideals, religious and political.

ii. Muslims of India, as followers of Islam, could not merge or subordinate their national and political identity to the Hindus.
iii. Muslims wished to live according to their own
code of life, • culture, traditions, and belief.
Q.No.3 Do you think Quaid-i-Azam's ideologic-al thought I was in line with the earlier thought expressed in the ides of .-Shah Wali-Allah, Syed Ahmad Khan and Allama Mohammad Iobal?
Points to note
1.. Muslims are a separate community.
.Muslims need to. protect and secure their separate entity.
ill. Muslims cannot be ruled b the non-Muslims.
iv. Muslims, must develop and promote their political, economic, cultural .and spiritual interests.
V. Muslims *must have their own homelan4 where they might live by their own culture, traditions and Islamic laws.